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Judgment of the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Justice

The request has been made in proceedings between the Slovak Republic and Achmea BV concerning an arbitral award of 7 December 2012 made by the arbitral tribunal provided for by the Agreement on encouragement and reciprocal protection of investments between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic ('the BIT’).

Legal context


The BIT, concluded in 1991, entered into force on 1 January 1992. In accordance with Article 3(1) of the BIT, the contracting parties undertook to ensure fair and equitable treatment to the investments of investors of the other contracting party and not to impair by unreasonable or discriminatory measures the operation, management, maintenance, use, enjoyment or disposal of those investments. In accordance with Article 4 of the BIT, each contracting party guaranteed the free transfer in a freely convertible currency without undue restriction or delay of payments relating to an investment, such as profits, interest and dividends.

German law

The dispute in the main proceedings and the questions referred for a preliminary ruling

As part of a reform of its health system, the Slovak Republic opened the Slovak market in 2004 to national operators and those of other Member States offering private sickness insurance services. Achmea, an undertaking belonging to a Netherlands insurance group, after obtaining authorisation as a sickness insurance institution, set up a subsidiary in Slovakia to which it contributed capital and through which it offered private sickness insurance services on the Slovak market.
In 2006 the Slovak Republic partly reversed the liberalisation of the private sickness insurance market. In particular, by a law of 25 October 2007, it prohibited the distribution of profits generated by private sickness insurance activities. Subsequently, after the Üstavny süd Slovenskej republiky (Constitutional Court of the Slovak Republic) held in a judgment of 26 January 2011 that the prohibition was contrary to the Slovak constitution, the Slovak Republic, by a law which entered into force on 1 August 2011, once more allowed the distribution of the profits in question.
Since it considered that the legislative measures of the Slovak Republic had caused it damage, Achmea brought arbitration proceedings against the Slovak Republic in October 2008 pursuant to Article 8 of the BIT.
As Frankfurt am Main (Germany) was chosen as the place of arbitration, German law applies to the arbitration proceedings concerned.
In those arbitration proceedings the Slovak Republic raised an objection of lack of jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal. It submitted in that respect that, as a result of its accession to the European Union, recourse to an arbitral tribunal provided for in Article 8(2) of the BIT was incompatible with EU law. By an interlocutory arbitral award of 26 October 2010, the arbitral tribunal dismissed the objection. The applications for that award to be set aside brought by the Slovak Republic before the German courts were unsuccessful at first instance and on appeal.
By arbitral award of 7 December 2012, the arbitral tribunal ordered the Slovak Republic to pay Achmea damages in the principal amount of EUR 22.1 million. The Slovak Republic brought an action to set aside that arbitral award before the Oberlandesgericht Frankfurt am Main (Higher Regional Court, Frankfurt am Main, Germany). When that court dismissed the action, the Slovak Republic appealed on a point of law against the dismissal to the Bundesgerichtshof (Federal Court of Justice, Germany).
The referring court notes that, since the accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union on 1 May 2004, the BIT has constituted an agreement between Member States, so that in the event of conflict the provisions of EU law take precedence, in the matters governed by them, over the provisions of the BIT.
The Slovak Republic expressed doubts as to the compatibility of the arbitration clause in Article 8 of the BIT with Articles 18, 267 and 344 TFEU. Although the referring court does not share those doubts, it nonetheless considered that, since the Court has not yet ruled on those questions and the questions are of considerable importance because of the numerous bilateral investment treaties still in force between Member States which contain similar arbitration clauses, it was necessary to make the present reference to the Court in order to decide the case before it.
In the first place, the referring court doubts that Article 344 TFEU is even applicable. To begin with, the subject matter and purpose of that provision show that, even if its wording does not make this clearly apparent, it does not concern disputes between an individual and a Member State.
Next, the subject matter of Article 344 TFEU is confined to disputes relating to the interpretation and application of the Treaties. The dispute in the main proceedings is not such a case, however, as the arbitral award of 7 December 2012 was made on the basis of the BIT alone.
Finally, the purpose of Article 344 TFEU is to safeguard the allocation of powers laid down by the Treaties, and hence the autonomy of the EU legal system, observance of which is ensured by the Court, and at the same time it is a specific manifestation of the duty of the Member States to cooperate with the Court within the meaning of Article 4(3) TEU. It cannot, however, be concluded from that that Article 344 TFEU safeguards the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to any dispute in which EU law may be applied or interpreted. That provision in fact protects the exclusive jurisdiction of the Court only to the extent that the Member States have to make use of the procedures before the Court laid down by the Treaties. Yet a dispute such as that in the main proceedings cannot be resolved in proceedings before the EU judicature. The Treaties make no provision for any judicial procedure in which an investor such as Achmea can bring a claim, before the EU judicature, for compensation from a Member State under a bilateral investment treaty such as the BIT.
It observes, first, that the arbitration procedure is not in itself capable of ensuring the uniform application of EU law that Article 267 TFEU aims to guarantee. Even though, under Article 8(6) of the BIT, the arbitral tribunal had to comply with EU law and, in the event of conflict, apply it in priority, it would not have the possibility of making a reference to the Court for a preliminary ruling, however, since it could not be regarded as a 'court or tribunal’ within the meaning of Article 267 TFEU.
The referring court adds, finally, that the Court has previously held that an international agreement providing for the establishment outside the institutional and judicial framework of the EU of a special court responsible for the interpretation and application of the provisions of that agreement is compatible with EU law in so far as there is no adverse effect on the autonomy of the EU legal order. The Court has not expressed reservations as to the creation of a judicial system that is designed, in essence, to resolve disputes relating to the interpretation or application of the actual provisions of the international agreement concerned and does not affect the powers of the courts and tribunals of the Member States in relation to the interpretation and application of EU law, nor the power, or indeed the obligation, of those courts and tribunals to request a preliminary ruling from the Court. The arbitral tribunal at issue in the main proceedings is called on precisely to rule on an infringement of the provisions of the BIT, which it must interpret in the light of EU law, in particular the provisions governing the free movement of capital.
In the third place, the referring court notes that, unlike Netherlands or Slovak investors, those from Member States other than the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Slovak Republic are unable to bring proceedings before an arbitral tribunal instead of a court of the State, which represents a considerable disadvantage which may constitute discrimination contrary to Article 18 TFEU. However, the restriction by an intra-EU bilateral agreement of an advantage to nationals of the contracting Member States is discriminatory only if the nationals of other Member States who do not enjoy that advantage are in an objectively comparable situation. That is not so in the present case, since the fact that the reciprocal rights and obligations apply only to nationals of the two contracting Member States is a consequence that is inherent in the bilateral agreements concluded between them.

The requests to have the written procedure reopened

Following the delivery of the Opinion of the Advocate General on 19 September 2017, the Czech, Hungarian and Polish Governments, by documents lodged at the Court Registry on 3 November, 19 and 16 October respectively, requested the reopening of the oral procedure pursuant to Article 83 of the Court’s Rules of Procedure.
However, first, the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union and the Rules of Procedure of the Court of Justice make no provision for the interested parties referred to in Article 23 of the Statute to submit observations in response to the Advocate General’s Opinion (judgment of 22 June 2017, Federatie Nederlandse Vakvereniging and Others, C-126/16, EU:C:2017:489, paragraph 30).
Secondly, under the second paragraph of Article 252 TFEU, the Advocate General, acting with complete impartiality and independence, is to make, in open court, reasoned submissions on cases which, in accordance with the Statute of the Court of Justice of the European Union, require the Advocate General’s involvement. The Court is not bound either by the Advocate General’s conclusion or by the reasoning which led to that conclusion. Consequently, a party’s disagreement with the Opinion of the Advocate General, irrespective of the questions that he examines in his Opinion, cannot in itself constitute grounds justifying the reopening of the oral procedure (judgment of 25 October 2017, Polbud — Wykonawstwo, C-106/16, EU:C:2017:804, paragraph 24 and the case-law cited).
Nevertheless, the Court may at any time, after hearing the Advocate General, order the reopening of the oral part of the procedure, in accordance with Article 83 of its Rules of Procedure, in particular if it considers that it lacks sufficient information or where the case must be decided on the basis of an argument which has not been debated between the interested persons (judgment of 22 June 2017, Federatie Nederlandse Vakvereniging and Others, C-126/16, EU:C:2017:489, paragraph 33 and the case-law cited).
In the present case, since the requests confine themselves to expressing the disagreement of the Czech, Hungarian and Polish Governments with the Opinion of the Advocate General and do not mention any new argument on the basis of which the present case should be decided, the Court considers, after hearing the Advocate General, that it has before it all the necessary elements to give judgment and that they need not be debated between the interested persons.
Having regard to the foregoing, the requests for the oral procedure to be reopened must be rejected.

Consideration of the questions referred

Questions 1 and 2

Question 3


On those grounds, the Court (Grand Chamber) hereby rules:

Articles 267 and 344 TFEU must be interpreted as precluding a provision in an international agreement concluded between Member States, such as Article 8 of the Agreement on encouragement and reciprocal protection of investments between the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the Czech and Slovak Federative Republic, under which an investor from one of those Member States may, in the event of a dispute concerning investments in the other Member State, bring proceedings against the latter Member State before an arbitral tribunal whose jurisdiction that Member State has undertaken to accept.

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