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Judgment

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The Government of the French Republic, represented by M. Basdevant, Professor at the Faculty of Law of Paris,

versus
The Government of the Turkish Republic, represented by His Excellency Mahmout Essat Bey, Minister of Justice.

The Court,

composed as above,

having heard the observations and conclusions of the Parties,

delivers the following judgment :

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By a special agreement signed at Geneva on October 12th, 1926, between the Governments of the French and Turkish Republics and filed with the Registry of the Court, in accordance with Article 40 of the Statute and Article 35 of the Rules of Court, on January 4th, 1927, by the diplomatic representatives at The Hague of the aforesaid Governments, the latter have submitted to the Permanent Court of International Justice the question of jurisdiction which has arisen between them following upon the collision which occurred on August 2nd, 1926, between the steamships Boz-Kourt and Lotus.

According to the special agreement, the Court has to decide the following questions :

"(1) Has Turkey, contrary to Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction, acted in conflict with the principles of international law—and if so, what principles—by instituting, following the collision which occurred on August 2nd, 1926, on the high seas between the French steamer Lotus and the Turkish steamer Boz-Kourt and upon the arrival of the French steamer at Constantinople—as well as against the captain of the Turkish steamship—joint criminal proceedings in pursuance of Turkish law against M. Demons, officer of the watch on board the Lotus at the time of the collision, in consequence of the loss of the Boz-Kourt having involved the death of eight Turkish sailors and passengers ?

"(2) Should the reply be in the affirmative, what pecuniary reparation is due to M. Demons, provided, according to the principles of international law, reparation should be made in similar cases ?"

Giving effect to the proposals jointly made by the Parties to the special agreement in accordance with the terms of Article 32 of the Rules, the President, under Article 48 of the Statute and Articles 33 and 39 of the Rules, fixed the dates for the filing by each Party of a Case and Counter-Case as March 1st and May 24th, 1927, respectively ; no time was fixed for the submission of replies, as the Parties had expressed the wish that there should not be any.

The Cases and Counter-Cases were duly filed with the Registry by the dates fixed and were communicated to those concerned as provided in Article 43 of the Statute.

In the course of hearings held on August 2nd, 3rd, 6th, and 8th-10th, 1927, the Court has heard the oral pleadings, reply and rejoinder submitted by the above-mentioned Agents for the Parties.

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In support of their respective submissions, the Parties have placed before the Court, as annexes to the documents of the written proceedings, certain documents, a list of which is given in the annex.

In the course of the proceedings, the Parties have had occasion to define the points of view respectively adopted by them in relation to the questions referred to the Court. They have done so by formulating more or less developed conclusions summarizing their arguments. Thus the French Government, in its Case, asks for judgment to the effect that :

"Under the Convention respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction signed at Lausanne on July 24th, 1923, and the principles of international law, jurisdiction to entertain criminal proceedings against the officer of the watch of a French ship, in connection with the collision which occurred on the high seas between that vessel and a Turkish ship, belongs exclusively to the French Courts ;

"Consequently, the Turkish judicial authorities were wrong in prosecuting, imprisoning and convicting M. Demons, in connection with the collision which occurred on the high seas between the Lotus and the Boz-Kourt, and by so doing acted in a manner contrary to the above-mentioned Convention and to the principles of international law ;

« Accordingly the Court is asked to fix the indemnity in reparation of the injury thus inflicted upon M. Demons at 6,000 Turkish pounds and to order this indemnity to be paid by the Government of the Turkish Republic to the Government of the French Republic. ’

The Turkish Government, for its part, simply asks the Court in its Case to "give judgment in favour of the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts".

The French Government, however, has, in its Counter-Case, again formulated the conclusions, already set out in its Case, in a slightly modified form, introducing certain new points preceded by arguments which should be cited in full, seeing that they summarize in a brief and precise manner the point of view taken by the French Government ; the new arguments and conclusions are as follows :

"Whereas the substitution of the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts for that of the foreign consular courts in criminal proceedings taken against foreigners is the outcome of the consent given by the Powers to this substitution in the Conventions signed at Lausanne on July 24th, 1923 ;

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"As this consent, far from having been given as regards criminal proceedings against foreigners for crimes or offences committed abroad, has been definitely refused by the Powers and by France in particular ;

"As this refusal follows from the rejection of a Turkish amendment calculated to establish this jurisdiction and from the statements made in this connection ;

"As, accordingly, the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, construed in the light of these circumstances and intentions, does not allow the Turkish Courts to take cognizance of criminal proceedings directed against a French citizen for crimes or offences committed outside Turkey ;

"Furthermore, whereas, according to international law as established by the practice of civilized nations, in their relations with each other, a State is not entitled, apart from express or implicit special agreements, to extend the criminal jurisdiction of its courts to include a crime or offence committed by a foreigner abroad solely in consequence of the fact that one of its nationals has been a victim of the crime or offence ;

"Whereas acts performed on the high seas on board a merchant ship are, in principle and from the point of view of criminal proceedings, amenable only to the jurisdiction of the courts of the State whose flag the vessel flies ;

"As that is a consequence of the principle of the freedom of the seas, and as States, attaching especial importance thereto, have rarely departed therefrom ;

"As, according to existing law, the nationality of the victim is not a sufficient ground to override this rule, and seeing that this was held in the case of the Costa Rica Packet ;

"Whereas there are special reasons why the application of this rule should be maintained in collision cases, which reasons are mainly connected with the fact that the culpable character of the act causing the collision must be considered in the light of purely national regulations which apply to the ship and the carrying out of which must be controlled by the national authorities ;

"As the collision cannot, in order thus to establish the jurisdiction of the courts of the country to which it belongs, be localized in the vessel sunk, such a contention being contrary to the facts ;

"As the claim to extend the jurisdiction of the courts of the country to which one vessel belongs, on the ground of the "connexity" (connexité) of offences, to proceedings against an officer of the other vessel concerned in the collision, when the two vessels are not of the same nationality, has no support in international law ;

"Whereas a contrary decision recognizing the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts to take cognizance of the criminal proceedings against the officer of the watch of the French ship involved in the collision would amount to introducing an innovation entirely at variance with firmly established precedent ;

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"Whereas the special agreement submits to the Court the question of an indemnity to be awarded to Monsieur Demons as a consequence of the decision given by it upon the first question ;

"As any other consequences involved by this decision, not having been submitted to the Court, are ipso facto reserved ;

"As the arrest, imprisonment and conviction of Monsieur Demons are the acts of authorities having no jurisdiction under international law, the principle of an indemnity enuring to the benefit of Monsieur Demons and chargeable to Turkey, cannot be disputed ;

"As his imprisonment lasted for thirty-nine days, there having been delay in granting his release on bail contrary to the provisions of the Declaration regarding the administration of justice signed at Lausanne on July 24th, 1923 ;

"As his prosecution was followed by a conviction calculated to do Monsieur Demons at least moral damage ;

"As the Turkish authorities, immediately before his conviction, and when he had undergone detention about equal to one half of the period to which he was going to be sentenced, made his release conditional upon bail in 6,000 Turkish pounds ;

"Asks for judgment, whether the Government of the Turkish Republic be present or absent, to the effect :

"That, under the rules of international law and the Convention respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction signed at Lausanne on July 24th, 1923, jurisdiction to entertain criminal proceedings against the officer of the watch of a French ship, in connection with the collision which occurred on the high seas between that ship and a Turkish ship, belongs exclusively to the French Courts ;

"That, consequently, the Turkish judicial authorities were wrong in prosecuting, imprisoning and convicting Monsieur Demons, in connection with the collision which occurred on the high seas between the Lotus and the Boz-Kourt, and by so doing acted in a manner contrary to the principles of international law and to the above-mentioned Convention ;

"Accordingly, the Court is asked to fix the indemnity in reparation of the injury thus inflicted on Monsieur Demons at 6,000 Turkish pounds and to order this indemnity to be paid by the Government of the Turkish Republic to the Government of the French Republic within one month from the date of judgment, without prejudice to the repayment of the bail deposited by Monsieur Demons.

"The Court is also asked to place on record that any other consequences which the decision given might have, not having been submitted to the Court, are if>so facto reserved."

The Turkish Government, in its Counter-Case, confines itself to repeating the conclusion of its Case, preceding it, however, by

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a short statement of its argument, which statement it will be well to reproduce, since it corresponds to the arguments preceding the conclusions of the French Counter-Case :

"1.—Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction refers simply and solely, as regards the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts, to the principles of international law, subject only to the provisions of Article 16. Article 15 cannot be read as supporting any reservation whatever or any construction giving it another meaning. Consequently, Turkey, when exercising jurisdiction in any case concerning foreigners, need, under this article, only take care not to act in a manner contrary to the principles of international law.

"2.—Article 6 of the Turkish Penal Code, which is taken word for word from the Italian Penal Code, is not, as regards the case, contrary to the principles of international law.

"3.—Vessels on the high seas form part of the territory of the nation whose flag they fly, and in the case under consideration, the place where the offence was committed being the S.S. Boz-Kourt flying the Turkish flag, Turkey’s jurisdiction in the proceedings taken is as clear as if the case had occurred on her territory—as is borne out by analogous cases.

"4.—The Boz-Kourt—Lotus case being a case involving "connected" offences (délits connexes), the Code of criminal procedure for trial—which is borrowed from France—lays down that the French officer should be prosecuted jointly with and at the same time as the Turkish officer ; this, moreover, is confirmed by the doctrines and legislation of all countries. Turkey, therefore, is entitled from this standpoint also to claim jurisdiction.

"5.—Even if the question be considered solely from the point of view of the collision, as no principle of international criminal law exists which would debar Turkey from exercising the jurisdiction which she clearly possesses to entertain an action for damages, that country has jurisdiction to institute criminal proceedings.

"6.—As Turkey is exercising jurisdiction of a fundamental character, and as States are not, according to the principles of international law, under an obligation to pay indemnities in such cases, it is clear that the question of the payment of the indemnity claimed in the French Case does not arise for the Turkish Government, since that Government has jurisdiction to prosecute the French citizen Demons who, as the result of a collision, has been guilty of manslaughter.

"The Court is asked for judgment in favour of the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts."

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During the oral proceedings, the Agent of the French Government confined himself to referring to the conclusions submitted in the Counter-Case, simply reiterating his request that the Court should place on record the reservations made therein as regards any consequences of the judgment not submitted to the Court’s decision ; these reservations are now duly recorded.

For his part, the Agent for the Turkish Government abstained both in his original speech and in his rejoinder from submitting any conclusion. The one he formulated in the documents filed by him in the written proceedings must therefore be regarded as having been maintained unaltered.

THE FACTS.

According to the statements submitted to the Court by the Parties’ Agents in their Cases and in their oral pleadings, the facts in which the affair originated are agreed to be as follows :

On August 2nd, 1926, just before midnight, a collision occurred between the French mail steamer Lotus, proceeding to Constantinople, and the Turkish collier Boz-Kourt, between five and six nautical miles to the north of Cape Sigri (Mitylene). The Boz-Kourt, which was cut in two, sank, and eight Turkish nationals who were on board perished. After having done everything possible to succour the shipwrecked persons, of whom ten were able to be saved, the Lotus continued on its course to Constantinople, where it arrived on August 3rd.

At the time of the collision, the officer of the watch on board the Lotus was Monsieur Demons, a French citizen, lieutenant in the merchant service and first officer of the ship, whilst the movements of the Boz-Kourt were directed by its captain, Hassan Bey, who was one of those saved from the wreck.

As early as August 3rd the Turkish police proceeded to hold an enquiry into the collision on board the Lotus ; and on the following day, August 4th, the captain of the Lotus handed in his master’s report at the French Consulate-General, transmitting a copy to the harbour master.

On August 5th, Lieutenant Demons was requested by the Turkish authorities to go ashore to give evidence. The examination, the length of which incidentally resulted in delaying the departure of

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the Lotus, led to the placing under arrest of Lieutenant Demons— without previous notice being given to the French Consul-General —and Hassan Bey, amongst others. This arrest, which has been characterized by the Turkish Agent as arrest pending trial (arrestation préventive), was effected in order to ensure that the criminal prosecution instituted against the two officers, on a charge of manslaughter, by the Public Prosecutor of Stamboul, on the complaint of the families of the victims of the collision, should follow its normal course.

The case was first heard by the Criminal Court of Stamboul on August 28th. On that occasion, Lieutenant Demons submitted that the Turkish Courts had no jurisdiction ; the Court, however, overruled his objection. When the proceedings were resumed on September 11th, Lieutenant Demons demanded his release on bail : this request was complied with on September 13th, the bail being fixed at 6,000 Turkish pounds.

On September 15th, the Criminal Court delivered its judgment, the terms of which have not been communicated to the Court by the Parties. It is, however, common ground, that it sentenced Lieutenant Demons to eighty days’ imprisonment and a fine of twenty-two pounds, Hassan Bey being sentenced to a slightly more severe penalty.

It is also common ground between the Parties that the Public Prosecutor of the Turkish Republic entered an appeal against this decision, which had the effect of suspending its execution until a decision upon the appeal had been given ; that such decision has not yet been given ; but that the special agreement of October 12th, 1926, did not have the effect of suspending "the criminal proceedings... now in progress in Turkey".

The action of the Turkish judicial authorities with regard to Lieutenant Demons at once gave rise to many diplomatic representations and other steps on the part of the French Government or its representatives in Turkey, either protesting against the arrest of Lieutenant Demons or demanding his release, or with a view to obtaining the transfer of the case from the Turkish Courts to the French Courts.

As a result of these representations, the Government of the Turkish Republic declared on September 2nd, 1926, that "it would have no objection to the reference of the conflict of jurisdiction to the Court at The Hague".

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The French Government having, on the 6th of the same month, given "its full consent to the proposed solution", the two Governments appointed their plenipotentiaries with a view to the drawing up of the special agreement to be submitted to the Court ; this special agreement was signed at Geneva on October 12th, 1926, as stated above, and the ratifications were deposited on December 27th, 1926.

THE LAW.

I.

Before approaching the consideration of the principles of international law contrary to which Turkey is alleged to have acted— thereby infringing the terms of Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction—, it is necessary to define, in the light of the written and oral proceedings, the position resulting from the special agreement. For, the Court having obtained cognizance of the present case by notification of a special agreement concluded between the Parties in the case, it is rather to the terms of this agreement than to the submissions of the Parties that the Court must have recourse in establishing the precise points which it has to decide. In this respect the following observations should be made :

1. —The collision which occurred on August 2nd, 1926, between the S.S. Lotus, flying the French flag, and the S.S. Boz-Kourt, flying the Turkish flag, took place on the high seas : the territorial jurisdiction of any State other than France and Turkey therefore does not enter into account.

2. —The violation, if any, of the principles of international law would have consisted in the taking of criminal proceedings against Lieutenant Demons. It is not therefore a question relating to any particular step in these proceedings—such as his being put to trial, his arrest, his detention pending trial or the judgment given by the Criminal Court of Stamboul—but of the very fact of the Turkish Courts exercising criminal jurisdiction. That is why the arguments put forward by the Parties in both phases of

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the proceedings relate exclusively to the question whether Turkey has or has not, according to the principles of international law, jurisdiction to prosecute in this case.

The Parties agree that the Court has not to consider whether the prosecution was in conformity with Turkish law ; it need not therefore consider whether, apart from the actual question of jurisdiction, the provisions of Turkish law cited by Turkish authorities were really applicable in this case, or whether the manner in which the proceedings against Lieutenant Demons were conducted might constitute a denial of justice, and accordingly, a violation of international law. The discussions have borne exclusively upon the question whether criminal jurisdiction does or does not exist in this case.

3.—The prosecution was instituted because the loss of the Boz-Kourt involved the death of eight Turkish sailors and passengers. It is clear, in the first place, that this result of the collision constitutes a factor essential for the institution of the criminal proceedings in question ; secondly, it follows from the statements of the two Parties that no criminal intention has been imputed to either of the officers responsible for navigating the two vessels ; it is therefore a case of prosecution for involuntary manslaughter. The French Government maintains that breaches of navigation regulations fall exclusively within the jurisdiction of the State under whose flag the vessel sails ; but it does not argue that a collision between two vessels cannot also bring into operation the sanctions which apply to criminal law in cases of manslaughter. The precedents cited by it and relating to collision cases all assume the possibility of criminal proceedings with a view to the infliction of such sanctions, the dispute being confined to the question of jurisdiction— concurrent or exclusive—which another State might claim in this respect. As has already been observed, the Court has not to consider the lawfulness of the prosecution under Turkish law ; questions of criminal law relating to the justification of the prosecution and consequently to the existence of a nexus causalis between the actions of Lieutenant Demons and the loss of eight Turkish nationals are not relevant to the issue so far as the Court is concerned. Moreover, the exact conditions in which these persons perished do not appear from the documents submitted to the Court ; nevertheless, there is no doubt that their death may be regarded as the direct

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outcome of the collision, and the French Government has not contended that this relation of cause and effect cannot exist.

4. —Lieutenant Demons and the captain of the Turkish steamship were prosecuted jointly and simultaneously. In regard to the conception of "connexity" of offences (connexité), the Turkish Agent in the submissions of his Counter-Case has referred to the Turkish Code of criminal procedure for trial, the provisions of which are said to have been taken from the corresponding French Code. Now in French law, amongst other factors, coincidence of time and place may give rise to "connexity" (connexité). In this case, therefore, the Court interprets this conception as meaning that the proceedings against the captain of the Turkish vessel in regard to which the jurisdiction of the Turkish Courts is not disputed, and the proceedings against Lieutenant Demons, have been regarded by the Turkish authorities, from the point of view of the investigation of the case, as one and the same prosecution, since the collision of the two steamers constitutes a complex of facts the consideration of which should, from the standpoint of Turkish criminal law, be entrusted to the same court.

5. —The prosecution was instituted in pursuance of Turkish legislation. The special agreement does not indicate what clause or clauses of that legislation apply. No document has been submitted to the Court indicating on what article of the Turkish Penal Code the prosecution was based ; the French Government however declares that the Criminal Court claimed jurisdiction under Article 6 of the Turkish Penal Code, and far from denying this statement, Turkey, in the submissions of her Counter-Case, contends that that article is in conformity with the principles of international law. It does not appear from the proceedings whether the prosecution was instituted solely on the basis of that article.

Article 6 of the Turkish Penal Code, Law No. 765 of March 1st, 1926 (Official Gazette No. 320 of March 13th, 1926), runs as follows: [Translation.]

"Any foreigner who, apart from the cases contemplated by Article 4, commits an offence abroad to the prejudice of Turkey or of a Turkish subject, for which offence Turkish law prescribes a penalty involving loss of freedom for a

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minimum period of not less than one year, shall be punished in accordance with the Turkish Penal Code provided that he is arrested in Turkey. The penalty shall however be reduced by one third and instead of the death penalty, twenty years of penal servitude shall be awarded.

"Nevertheless, in such cases, the prosecution will only be instituted at the request of the Minister of Justice or on the complaint of the injured Party.

"If the offence committed injures another foreigner, the guilty person shall be punished at the request of the Minister of Justice, in accordance with the provisions set out in the first paragraph of this article, provided however that :

"(1) the article in question is one for which Turkish law prescribes a penalty involving loss of freedom for a minimum period of three years ;

"(2) there is no extradition treaty or that extradition has not been accepted either by the government of the locality where the guilty person has committed the offence or by the government of his own country."

Even if the Court must hold that the Turkish authorities had seen fit to base the prosecution of Lieutenant Demons upon the above-mentioned Article 6, the question submitted to the Court is not whether that article is compatible with the principles of international law ; it is more general. The Court is asked to state whether or not the principles of international law prevent Turkey from instituting criminal proceedings against Lieutenant Demons under Turkish law. Neither the conformity of Article 6 in itself with the principles of international law nor the application of that article by the Turkish authorities constitutes the point at issue ; it is the very fact of the institution of proceedings which is held by France to be contrary to those principles. Thus the French Government at once protested against his arrest, quite independently of the question as to what clause of her legislation was relied upon by Turkey to justify it. The arguments put forward by the French Government in the course of the proceedings and based on the principles which, in its contention, should govern navigation on the high seas, show that it would dispute Turkey’s jurisdiction to prosecute Lieutenant Demons, even if that prosecution were based on a clause of the Turkish Penal Code other than Article 6, assuming for instance that the offence in question should be regarded, by reason of its consequences, to have been actually committed on Turkish territory.

II.

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Having determined the position resulting from the terms of the special agreement, the Court must now ascertain which were the principles of international law that the prosecution of Lieutenant Demons could conceivably be said to contravene.

It is Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction, which refers the contracting Parties to the principles of international law as regards the delimitation of their respective jurisdiction.

This clause is as follows :

"Subject to the provisions of Article 16, all questions of jurisdiction shall, as between Turkey and the other contracting Powers, be decided in accordance with the principles of international law."

The French Government maintains that the meaning of the expression "principles of international law" in this article should be sought in the light of the evolution of the Convention. Thus it states that during the preparatory work, the Turkish Government, by means of an amendment to the relevant article of a draft for the Convention, sought to extend its jurisdiction to crimes committed in the territory of a third State, provided that, under Turkish law, such crimes were within the jurisdiction of Turkish Courts. This amendment, in regard to which the representatives of France and Italy made reservations, was definitely rejected by the British representative ; and the question having been subsequently referred to the Drafting Committee, the latter confined itself in its version of the draft to a declaration to the effect that questions of jurisdiction should be decided in accordance with the principles of international law. The French Government deduces from these facts that the prosecution of Demons is contrary to the intention which guided the preparation of the Convention of Lausanne.

The Court must recall in this connection what it has said in some of its preceding judgments and opinions, namely, that there is no occasion to have regard to preparatory work if the text of a convention is sufficiently clear in itself. Now the Court considers that the words "principles of international law", as ordinarily used, can only mean international law as it is applied between all nations belonging to the community of States. This interpretation

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is borne out by the context of the article itself which says that the principles of international law are to determine questions of jurisdiction—not only criminal but also civil—between the contracting Parties, subject only to the exception provided for in Article 16. Again, the preamble of the Convention says that the High Contracting Parties are desirous of effecting a settlement in accordance "with modern international law", and Article 28 of the Treaty of Peace of Lausanne, to which the Convention in question is annexed, decrees the complete abolition of the Capitulations "in every respect" In these circumstances it is impossible—except in pursuance of a definite stipulation—-to construe the expression "principles of international law" otherwise than as meaning the principles which are in force between all independent nations and which therefore apply equally to all the contracting Parties.

Moreover, the records of the preparation of the Convention respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction would not furnish anything calculated to overrule the construction indicated by the actual terms of Article 15. It is true that the representatives of France, Great Britain and Italy rejected the Turkish amendment already mentioned. But only the British delegate—and this conformably to British municipal law which maintains the territorial principle in regard to criminal jurisdiction—stated the reasons for his opposition to the Turkish amendment ; the reasons for the French and Italian reservations and for the omission from the draft prepared by the Drafting Committee of any definition of the scope of the criminal jurisdiction in respect of foreigners, are unknown and might have been unconnected with the arguments now advanced by France.

It should be added to these observations that the original draft of the relevant article, which limited Turkish jurisdiction to crimes committed in Turkey itself, was also discarded by the Drafting Committee ; this circumstance might with equal justification give the impression that the intention of the framers of the Convention was not to limit this jurisdiction in any way.

The two opposing proposals designed to determine definitely the area of application of Turkish criminal law having thus been discarded, the wording ultimately adopted by common consent for Article 15 can only refer to the principles of general international law relating to jurisdiction.

III.

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except by virtue of a permissive rule derived from international custom or from a convention.

It does not, however, follow that international law prohibits a State from exercising jurisdiction in its own territory, in respect of any case which relates to acts which have taken place abroad, and in which it cannot rely on some permissive rule of international law. Such a view would only be tenable if international law contained a general prohibition to States to extend the application of their laws and the jurisdiction of their courts to persons, property and acts outside their territory, and if, as an exception to this general prohibition, it allowed States to do so in certain specific cases. But this is certainly not the case under international law as it stands at present. Far from laying down a general prohibition to the effect that States may not extend the application of their laws and the jurisdiction of their courts to persons, property and acts outside their territory, it leaves them in this respect a wide measure of discretion which is only limited in certain cases by prohibitive rules ; as regards other cases, every State remains free to adopt the principles which it regards as best and most suitable.

This discretion left to States by international law explains the great variety of rules which they have been able to adopt without objections or complaints on the part of other States ; it is in order to remedy the difficulties resulting from such variety that efforts have been made for many years past, both in Europe and America, to prepare conventions the effect of which would be precisely to limit the discretion at present left to States in this respect by international law, thus making good the existing lacunæ in respect of jurisdiction or removing the conflicting jurisdictions arising from the diversity of the principles adopted by the various States.

In,these circumstances, all that can be required of a State is that it should not overstep the limits which international law places upon its jurisdiction ; within these limits, its title to exercise jurisdiction rests in its sovereignty.

It follows from the foregoing that the contention of the French Government to the effect that Turkey must in each case be able to cite a rule of international law authorizing her to exercise jurisdiction, is opposed to the generally accepted international law to which Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne refers. Having regard to the terms of Article 15 and to the construction which

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the Court has just placed upon it, this contention would apply in regard to civil as well as to criminal cases, and would be applicable on conditions of absolute reciprocity as between Turkey and the other contracting Parties ; in practice, it would therefore in many cases result in paralyzing the action of the courts, owing to the impossibility of citing a universally accepted rule on which to support the exercise of their jurisdiction.

Nevertheless, it has to be seen whether the foregoing considerations really apply as regards criminal jurisdiction, or whether this jurisdiction is governed by a different principle : this might be the outcome of the close connection which for a long time existed between the conception of supreme criminal jurisdiction and that of a State, and also by the especial importance of criminal jurisdiction from the point of view of the individual.

Though it is true that in all systems of law the principle of the territorial character of criminal law is fundamental, it is equally true that all or nearly all these systems of law extend their action to offences committed outside the territory of the State which adopts them, and they do so in ways which vary from State to State. The territoriality of criminal law, therefore, is not an absolute principle of international law and by no means coincides with territorial sovereignty.

This situation may be considered from two different stand points corresponding to the points of view respectively taken up by the Parties. According to one of these standpoints, the principle of freedom, in virtue of which each State may regulate its legislation at its discretion, provided that in so doing it does not come in conflict with a restriction imposed by international law, would also apply as regards law governing the scope of jurisdiction in criminal cases. According to the other standpoint, the exclusively territorial character of law relating to this domain constitutes a principle which, except as otherwise expressly provided, would, ipso facto, prevent States from extending the criminal jurisdiction of their courts beyond their frontiers ; the exceptions in question, which include for instance extraterritorial jurisdiction over nationals and over crimes directed against public safety, would therefore rest on special permissive rules forming part of international law.

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Adopting, for the purposes of the argument, the standpoint of the latter of these two systems, it must be recognized that, in the absence of a treaty provision, its correctness depends upon whether there is a custom having the force of law establishing it. The same is true as regards the applicability of this system— assuming it to have been recognized as sound—in the particular case. It follows that, even from this point of view, before ascertaining whether there may be a rule of international law expressly allowing Turkey to prosecute a foreigner for an offence committed by him outside Turkey, it is necessary to begin by establishing both that the system is well-founded and that it is applicable in the particular case. Now, in order to establish the first of these points, one must, as has just been seen, prove the existence of a principle of international law restricting the discretion of States as regards criminal legislation.

Consequently, whichever of the two systems described above be adopted, the same result will be arrived at in this particular case : the necessity of ascertaining whether or not under international law there is a principle which would have prohibited Turkey, in the circumstances of the case before the Court, from prosecuting Lieutenant Demons. And moreover, on either hypothesis, this must be ascertained by examining precedents offering a close analogy to the case under consideration ; for it is only from precedents of this nature that the existence of a general principle applicable to the particular case may appear. For if it were found, for example, that, according to the practice of States, the jurisdiction of the State whose flag was flown was not established by international law as exclusive with regard to collision cases on the high seas, it would not be necessary to ascertain whether there were a more general restriction; since, as regards that restriction—supposing that it existed—the fact that it had been established that there was` no prohibition in respect of collision on the high seas would be tantamount to a special permissive rule.

The Court therefore must, in any event, ascertain whether or not there exists a rule of international law limiting the freedom of States to extend the criminal jurisdiction of their courts to a situation uniting the circumstances of the present case.

IV.

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The Court will now proceed to ascertain whether general international law, to which Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne refers, contains a rule prohibiting Turkey from prosecuting Lieutenant Demons.

For this purpose, it will in the first place examine the value of the arguments advanced by the French Government, without however omitting to take into account other possible aspects of the problem, which might show the existence of a restrictive rule applicable in this case.

The arguments advanced by the French Government, other than those considered above, are, in substance, the three following :

(1) International law does not allow a State to take proceedings with regard to offences committed by foreigners abroad, simply by reason of the nationality of the victim ; and such is the situation in the present case because the offence must be regarded as having been committed on board the French vessel.

(2) International law recognizes the exclusive jurisdiction of the State whose flag is flown as regards everything which occurs on board a ship on the high seas.

(3) Lastly, this principle is especially applicable in a collision case.

As regards the first argument, the Court feels obliged in the first place to recall that its examination is strictly confined to the specific situation in the present case, for it is only in regard to this situation that its decision is asked for.

As has already been observed, the characteristic features of the situation of fact are as follows : there has been a collision on the high seas between two vessels flying different flags, on one of which was one of the persons alleged to be guilty of the offence, whilst the victims were on board the other.

This being so, the Court does not think it necessary to consider the contention that a State cannot punish offences committed abroad by a foreigner simply by reason of the nationality of the

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victim. For this contention only relates to the case where the nationality of the victim is the only criterion on which the criminal jurisdiction of the State is based. Even if that argument were correct generally speaking—and in regard to this the Court reserves its opinion—it could only be used in the present case if international law forbade Turkey to take into consideration the fact that the offence produced its effects on the Turkish vessel and consequently in a place assimilated to Turkish territory in which the application of Turkish criminal law cannot be challenged, even in regard to offences committed there by foreigners. But no such rule of international law exists. No argument has come to the knowledge of the Court from which it could be deduced that States recognize themselves to be under an obligation towards each other only to have regard to the place where the author of the offence happens to be at the time of the offence. On the contrary, it is certain that the courts of many countries, even of countries which have given their criminal legislation a strictly territorial character, interpret criminal law in the sense that offences, the authors of which at the moment of commission are in the territory of another State, are nevertheless to be regarded as having been committed in the national territory, if one of the constituent elements of the offence, and more especially its effects, have taken place there. French courts have, in regard to a variety of situations, given decisions sanctioning this way of interpreting the territorial principle. Again, the Court does not know of any cases in which governments have protested against the fact that the criminal law of some country contained a rule to this effect or that the courts of a country construed their criminal law in this sense. Consequently, once it is admitted that the effects of the offence were produced on the Turkish vessel, it becomes impossible to hold that there is a rule of international law which prohibits Turkey from prosecuting Lieutenant Demons because of the fact that the author of the offence was on board the French ship. Since, as has already been observed, the special agreement does not deal with the provision of Turkish law under which the prosecution was instituted, but only with the question whether the prosecution should be regarded as contrary to the principles of international law, there is no reason preventing the Court from confining itself to observing that, in this case, a prosecution may also be justified from the point of view of the so-called territorial principle.
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Nevertheless, even if the Court had to consider whether Article 6 of the Turkish Penal Code was compatible with international law, and if it held that the nationality of the victim did not in all circumstances constitute a sufficient basis for the exercise of criminal jurisdiction by the State of which the victim was a national, the Court would arrive at the same conclusion for the reasons just set out. For even were Article 6 to be held incompatible with the principles of international law, since the prosecution might have been based on another provision of Turkish law which would not have been contrary to any principle of international law, it follows that it would be impossible to deduce from the mere fact that Article 6 was not in conformity with those principles, that the prosecution itself was contrary to them. The fact that the judicial authorities may have committed an error in their choice of the legal provision applicable to the particular case and compatible with international law only concerns municipal law and can only affect international law in so far as a treaty provision enters into account, or the possibility of a denial of justice arises.

It has been sought to argue that the offence of manslaughter cannot be localized at the spot where the mortal effect is felt ; for the effect is not intentional and it cannot be said that there is, in the mind of the delinquent, any culpable intent directed towards the territory where the mortal effect is produced. In reply to this argument it might be observed that the effect is a factor of outstanding importance in offences such as manslaughter, which are punished precisely in consideration of their effects rather than of the subjective intention of the delinquent. But the Court does not feel called upon to consider this question, which is one of interpretation of Turkish criminal law. It will suffice to observe that no argument has been put forward and nothing has been found from which it would follow that international law has established a rule imposing on States this reading of the conception of the offence of manslaughter.

The second argument put forward by the French Government is the principle that the State whose flag is flown has exclusive jurisdiction over everything which occurs on board a merchant ship on the high seas.

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It is certainly true that—apart from certain special cases which are defined by international law—vessels on the high seas are subject to no authority except that of the State whose flag they fly. In virtue of the principle of the freedom of the seas, that is to say, the absence of any territorial sovereignty upon the high seas, no State may exercise any kind of jurisdiction over foreign vessels upon them. Thus, if a war vessel, happening to be at the spot where a collision occurs between a vessel flying its flag and a foreign vessel, were to send on board the latter an officer to make investigations or to take evidence, such an act would undoubtedly be contrary to international law.

But it by no means follows that a State can never in its own territory exercise jurisdiction over acts which have occurred on board a foreign ship on the high seas. A corollary of the principle of the freedom of the seas is that a ship on the high seas is assimilated to the territory of the State the flag of which it flies, for, just as in its own territory, that State exercises its authority upon it, and no other State may do so. All that can be said is that by virtue of the principle of the freedom of the seas, a ship is placed in the same position as national territory ; but there is nothing to support the claim according to which the rights of the State under whose flag the vessel sails may go farther than the rights which it exercises within its territory properly so called. It follows that what occurs on board a vessel on the high seas must be regarded as if it occurred on the territory of the State whose flag the ship flies. If, therefore, a guilty act committed on the high seas produces its effects on a vessel flying another flag or in foreign territory, the same principles must be applied as if the territories of two different States were concerned, and the conclusion must therefore be drawn that there is no rule of international law prohibiting the State to which the ship on which the effects of the offence have taken place belongs, from regarding the offence as having been committed in its territory and prosecuting, accordingly, the delinquent.

This conclusion could only be overcome if it were shown that there was a rule of customary international law which, going further than the principle stated above, established the exclusive jurisdiction of the State whose flag was flown. The French Government has endeavoured to prove the existence of such a rule, having recourse for this purpose to the teachings of publicists, to decisions

26
of municipal and international tribunals, and especially to conventions which, whilst creating exceptions to the principle of the freedom of the seas by permitting the war and police vessels of a State to exercise a more or less extensive control over the merchant vessels of another State, reserve jurisdiction to the courts of the country whose flag is flown by the vessel proceeded against.

In the Court’s opinion, the existence of such a rule has not been conclusively proved.

In the first place, as regards teachings of publicists, and apart from the question as to what their value may be from the point of view of establishing the existence of a rule of customary law, it is no doubt true that all or nearly all writers teach that ships on the high seas are subject exclusively to the jurisdiction of the State whose flag they fly. But the important point is the significance attached by them to this principle ; now it does not appear that in general, writers bestow upon this principle a scope differing from or wider than that explained above and which is equivalent to saying that the jurisdiction of a State over vessels on the high seas is the same in extent as its jurisdiction in its own territory. On the other hand, there, is no lack of writers who, upon a close study of the special question whether a State can prosecute for offences committed on board a foreign ship on the high seas, definitely come to the conclusion that such offences must be regarded as if they had been committed in the territory of the State whose flag the ship flies, and that consequently the general rules of each legal system in regard to offences committed abroad are applicable.

In regard to precedents, it should first be observed that, leaving aside the collision cases which will be alluded to later, none of them relates to offences affecting two ships flying the flags of two different countries, and that consequently they are not of much importance in the case before the Court. The case of the Costa Rica Packet is no exception, for the prauw on which the alleged depredations took place was adrift without flag or crew, and this circumstance certainly influenced, perhaps decisively, the conclusion arrived at by the arbitrator.

On the other hand, there is no lack of cases in which a State has claimed a right to prosecute for an offence, committed on board a foreign ship, which it regarded as punishable under its legislation. Thus Great Britain refused the request of the United

27
States for the extradition of John Anderson, a British seaman who had committed homicide on board an American vessel, stating that she did not dispute the jurisdiction of the United States but that she was entitled to exercise hers concurrently. This case, to which others might be added, is relevant in spite of Anderson’s British nationality, in order to show that the principle of the exclusive jurisdiction of the country whose flag the vessel flies is not universally accepted.

The cases in which the exclusive jurisdiction of the State whose flag was flown has been recognized would seem rather to have been cases in which the foreign State was interested only by reason of the nationality of the victim, and in which, according to the legislation of that State itself or the practice of its courts, that ground was not regarded as sufficient to authorize prosecution for an offence committed abroad by a foreigner.

Finally, as regards conventions expressly reserving jurisdiction exclusively to the State whose flag is flown, it is not absolutely certain that this stipulation is to be regarded as expressing a general principle of law rather than as corresponding to the extraordinary jurisdiction which these conventions confer on the state-owned ships of a particular country in respect of ships of another country on the high seas. Apart from that, it should be observed that these conventions relate to matters of a particular kind, closely connected with the policing of the seas, such as the slave trade, damage to submarine cables, fisheries, etc., and not to common-law offences. Above all it should be pointed out that the offences contemplated by the conventions in question only concern a single ship ; it is impossible therefore to make any deduction from them in regard to matters which concern two ships and consequently the jurisdiction of two different States.

The Court therefore has arrived at the conclusion that the second argument put forward by the French Government does not, any more than the first, establish the existence of a rule of international law prohibiting Turkey from prosecuting Lieutenant Demons.

It only remains to examine the third argument advanced by the French Government and to ascertain whether a rule specially

28
applying to collision cases has grown up, according to which criminal proceedings regarding such cases come exclusively within the jurisdiction of the State whose flag is flown.

In this connection, the Agent for the French Government has drawn the Court’s attention to the fact that questions of jurisdiction in collision cases, which frequently arise before civil courts, are but rarely encountered in the practice of criminal courts. He deduces from this that, in practice, prosecutions only occur before the courts of the State whose flag is flown and that that circumstance is proof of a tacit consent on the part of States and, consequently, shows what positive international law is in collision cases.

In the Court’s opinion, this conclusion is not warranted. Even if the rarity of the judicial decisions to be found among the reported cases were sufficient to prove in point of fact the circumstance alleged by the Agent for the French Government, it would merely show that States had often, in practice, abstained from instituting criminal proceedings, and not that they recognized themselves as being obliged to do so ; for only if such abstention were based on their being conscious of having a duty to abstain would it be possible to speak of an international custom. The alleged fact does not allow one to infer that States have been conscious of having such a duty ; on the other hand, as will presently be seen, there are other circumstances calculated to show that the contrary is true.

So far as the Court is aware there are no decisions of international tribunals in this matter ; but some decisions of municipal courts have been cited. Without pausing to consider the value to be attributed to the judgments of municipal courts in connection, with the establishment of the existence of a rule of international law, it will suffice to observe that the decisions quoted sometimes support one view and sometimes the other. Whilst the French Government have been able to cite the Ortigia—Oncle-Joseph case before the Court of Aix and the Franconia—Strathclyde case before the British Court for Crown Cases Reserved, as being in favour of the exclusive jurisdiction of the State whose flag is flown, on the other hand the Ortigia—Oncle-Joseph case before the Italian Courts and the Ekbatana—West-Hinder case before the Belgian Courts have been cited in support of the opposing contention.

Lengthy discussions have taken place between the Parties as to the importance of each of these decisions as regards the details

29
of which the Court confines itself to a reference to the Cases and Counter-Cases of the Parties. The Court does not think it necessary to stop to consider them. It will suffice to observe that, as municipal jurisprudence is thus divided, it is hardly possible to see in it an indication of the existence of the restrictive rule of international law which alone could serve as a basis for the contention of the French Government.

On the other hand, the Court feels called upon to lay stress upon the fact that it does not appear that the States concerned have objected to criminal proceedings in respect of collision cases before the courts of a country other than that the flag of which was flown, or that they have made protests : their conduct does not appear to have differed appreciably from that observed by them in all cases of concurrent jurisdiction. This fact is directly opposed to the existence of a tacit consent on the part of States to the exclusive jurisdiction of the State whose flag is flown, such as the Agent for the French Government has thought it possible to deduce from the infrequency of questions of jurisdiction before criminal courts. It seems hardly probable, and it would not be in accordance with international practice, that the French Government in the Ortigia—Oncle-Joseph case and the German Government in the Ekbatana—West-Hinder case would have omitted to protest against the exercise of criminal jurisdiction by the Italian and Belgian Courts, if they had really thought that this was a violation of international law.

As regards the Franconia case (R. v. Keyn 1877, L. R. 2 Ex. Div. 63) upon which the Agent for the French Government has particularly relied, it should be observed that the part of the decision which bears the closest relation to the present case is the part relating to the localization of the offence on the vessel responsible for the collision.

But, whatever the value of the opinion expressed by the majority of the judges on this particular point may be in other respects, there would seem to be no doubt that if, in the minds of these judges, it was based on a rule of international law, their conception of that law, peculiar to English jurisprudence, is far from being generally accepted even in common-law countries. This view seems moreover to be borne out by the fact that the standpoint taken by the majority of the judges in regard to the localization of an offence, the author of which is situated in the territory of one

30
State whilst its effects are produced in another State, has been abandoned in more recent English decisions (R. v. Nillins, 1884, 53 L. J. 157; R. v. Godfrey, L. R. 1923, 1 K. B. 24). This development of English case-law tends to support the view that international law leaves States a free hand in this respect.

In support of the theory in accordance with which criminal jurisdiction in collision cases would exclusively belong to the State of the flag flown by the ship, it has been contended that it is a question of the observance of the national regulations of each merchant marine and that effective punishment does not consist so much in the infliction of some months’ imprisonment upon the captain as in the cancellation of his certificate as master, that is to say, in depriving him of the command of his ship.

In regard to this, the Court must observe that in the present case a prosecution was instituted for an offence at criminal law and not for a breach of discipline. Neither the necessity of taking administrative regulations into account (even ignoring the circumstance that it is a question of uniform regulations adopted by States as a result of an international conference) nor the impossibility of applying certain disciplinary penalties can prevent the application of criminal law and of penal measures of repression.

The conclusion at which the Court has therefore arrived is that there is no rule of international law in regard to collision cases to the effect that criminal proceedings are exclusively within the jurisdiction of the State whose flag is flown.

This conclusion moreover is easily explained if the manner in which the collision brings the jurisdiction of two different countries into play be considered.

The offence for which Lieutenant Demons appears to have been prosecuted was an act—of negligence or imprudence—having its origin on board the Lotus, whilst its effects made themselves felt on board the Boz-Kourt. These two elements are, legally, entirely inseparable, so much so that their separation renders the offence non-existent. Neither the exclusive jurisdiction of either State, nor the limitations of the jurisdiction of each to the occurrences which took place on the respective ships would appear calculated to satisfy the requirements of justice and effectively to protect the interests of the two States. It is only natural that each should be able to exercise jurisdiction and to do so in respect

31
of the incident as a whole. It is therefore a case of concurrent jurisdiction.

The Court, having arrived at the conclusion that the arguments advanced by the French Government either are irrelevant to the issue or do not establish the existence of a principle of international law precluding Turkey from instituting the prosecution which was in fact brought against Lieutenant Demons, observes that in the fulfilment of its task of itself ascertaining what the international law is, it has not confined itself to a consideration of the arguments put forward, but has included in its researches all precedents, teachings and facts to which it had access and which might possibly have revealed the existence of one of the principles of international law contemplated in the special agreement. The result of these researches has not been to establish the existence of any such principle. It must therefore be held that there is no principle of international law, within the meaning of Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, which precludes the institution of the criminal proceedings under consideration. Consequently, Turkey, by instituting, in virtue of the discretion which international law leaves to every sovereign State, the criminal proceedings in question, has not, in the absence of such principles, acted in a manner contrary to the principles of international law within the meaning of the special agreement.

In the last place the Court observes that there is no need for it to consider the question whether the fact that the prosecution of Lieutenant Demons was "joint" (connexe) with that of the captain of the Boz-Kourt would be calculated to justify an extension of Turkish jurisdiction. This question would only have arisen if the Court had arrived at the conclusion that there was a rule of international law prohibiting Turkey from prosecuting Lieutenant Demons ; for only in that case would it have been necessary to ask whether that rule might be overridden by the fact of the "connexity" (connexité) of the offences.

V.

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Having thus answered the first question submitted by the special agreement in the negative, the Court need not consider the second question, regarding the pecuniary reparation which might have been due to Lieutenant Demons.

For these reasons,

The Court,

having heard both Parties,

gives, by the President’s casting vote—the votes being equally divided—, judgment to the effect

(1) that, following the collision which occurred on August 2nd, 1926, on the high seas between the French steamship Lotus and the Turkish steamship Boz-Kourt, and upon the arrival of the French ship at Stamboul, and in consequence of the loss of the Boz-Kourt having involved the death of eight Turkish nationals, Turkey, by instituting criminal proceedings in pursuance of Turkish law against Lieutenant Demons, officer of the watch on board the Lotus at the time of the collision, has not acted in conflict with the principles of international law, contrary to Article 15 of the Convention of Lausanne of July 24th, 1923, respecting conditions of residence and business and jurisdiction ;

(2) that, consequently, there is no occasion to give judgment on the question of the pecuniary reparation which might have been due to Lieutenant Demons if Turkey, by prosecuting him as above stated, had acted in a manner contrary to the principles of international law.

This judgment having been drawn up in French in accordance with the terms of Article 39, paragraph 1, second sentence, of the Statute of the Court, an English translation is attached thereto.

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Done at the Peace Palace, The Hague, this seventh day of September, nineteen hundred and twenty-seven, in three copies, one of which is to be placed in the archives of the Court, and the others to be transmitted to the Agents of the respective Parties.

MM. Loder, former President, Weiss, Vice-President, and Lord Finlay, MM. Nyholm and Altamira, Judges, declaring that they are unable to concur in the judgment delivered by the Court and availing themselves of the right conferred on them by Article 57 of the Statute, have delivered the separate opinions which follow hereafter.

Mr. Moore, dissenting from the judgment of the Court only on the ground of the connection of the criminal proceedings in the case with Article 6 of the Turkish Penal Code, also delivered a separate opinion.

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