"The Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Malaysia, hereinafter referred to as ‘the Parties’;
Considering that a dispute has arisen between them regarding sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan;
Desiring that this dispute should be settled in the spirit of friendly relations existing between the Parties as enunciated in the 1976 Treaty of Amity and Co-operation in Southeast Asia; and
Desiring further, that this dispute should be settled by the International Court of Justice (the Court),
Have agreed as follows:
Submission of Dispute
The Parties agree to submit the dispute to the Court under the terms of Article 36, paragraph 1, of its Statute.
Subject of the Litigation
The Court is requested to determine on the basis of the treaties, agreements and any other evidence furnished by the Parties, whether sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan belongs to the Republic of Indonesia or to Malaysia.
1. Subject to the time-limits referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article, the proceedings shall consist of written pleadings and oral hearings in accordance with Article 43 of the Statute of the Court.
2. Without prejudice to any question as to the burden of proof and having regard to Article 46 of the Rules of Court, the written pleadings should consist of:
(a) a Memorial presented simultaneously by each of the Parties not later than 12 months after the notification of this Special Agreement to the Registry of the Court;
(b) a Counter-Memorial presented by each of the Parties not later than 4 months after the date on which each has received the certified copy of the Memorial of the other Party;
(c) a Reply presented by each of the Parties not later than 4 months after the date on which each has received the certified copy of the CounterMemorial of the other Party; and
(d) a Rejoinder, if the Parties so agree or if the Court decides ex officio or at the request of one of the Parties that this part of the proceedings is necessary and the Court authorizes or prescribes the presentation of a Rejoinder.
3. The above-mentioned written pleadings and their annexes presented to the Registrar will not be transmitted to the other Party until the Registrar has received the part of the written pleadings corresponding to the said Party.
4. The question of the order of speaking at the oral hearings shall be decided by mutual agreement between the Parties or, in the absence of that agreement, by the Court. In all cases, however, the order of speaking adopted shall be without prejudice to any question regarding the burden of proof.
The principles and rules of international law applicable to the dispute shall be those recognized in the provisions of Article 38 of the Statute of the Court.
Judgment of the Court
The Parties agree to accept the Judgment of the Court given pursuant to this Special Agreement as final and binding upon them.
Entry into Force
1. This Agreement shall enter into force upon the exchange of instruments of ratification. The date of exchange of the said instruments shall be determined through diplomatic channels.
2. This Agreement shall be registered with the Secretariat of the United Nations pursuant to Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations, jointly or by either of the Parties.
In accordance with Article 40 of the Statute of the Court, this Special Agreement shall be notified to the Registrar of the Court by a joint letter from the Parties as soon as possible after it has entered into force.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed the present Agreement."
Further to this meeting, the Court, taking account of the views of the Parties, fixed Monday 3 June 2002, at 10 a.m., as the date for the opening of the hearings, and set a timetable for them. By letters dated 7 March 2002, the Registrar informed the Agents of the Parties accordingly.
For Indonesia: H.E. Mr. Hassan Wirajuda,
Sir Arthur Watts,
Mr. Alfred H. A. Soons,
Mr. Alain Pellet,
Mr. Rodman R. Bundy,
Ms Loretta Malintoppi.
For Malaysia: H.E. Mr. Tan Sri Abdul Kadir Mohamad,
H.E. Dato’ Noor Farida Ariffin,
Sir Elihu Lauterpacht,
Mr. Nico Schrijver,
Mr. James Crawford,
Mr. Jean-Pierre Cot.
On behalf of the Government of Indonesia,
in the Memorial, Counter-Memorial and Reply:
"On the basis of the considerations set out in this [Reply], the Government of the Republic of Indonesia requests the Court to adjudge and declare that:
(a) sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan belongs to the Republic of Indonesia; and
(b) sovereignty over Pulau Sipadan belongs to the Republic of Indonesia."
On behalf of the Government of Malaysia,
in the Memorial, Counter-Memorial and Reply:
"In the light of the considerations set out above, Malaysia respectfully requests the Court to adjudge and declare that sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan belongs to Malaysia."
On behalf of the Government of Indonesia,
"On the basis of the facts and legal considerations presented in Indonesia’s written pleadings and in its oral presentation, the Government of the Republic of Indonesia respectfully requests the Court to adjudge and declare that:
(i) sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan belongs to the Republic of Indonesia; and
(ii) sovereignty over Pulau Sipadan belongs to the Republic of Indonesia."
On behalf of the Government of Malaysia,
"The Government of Malaysia respectfully requests the Court to adjudge and declare that sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan belongs to Malaysia."
Ligitan is a very small island lying at the southern extremity of a large star-shaped reef extending southwards from the islands of Danawan and Si Amil, Its co-ordinates are 4° 09' latitude north and 118° 53' longitude east. The island is situated some 21 nautical miles from Tanjung Tutop, on the Semporna Peninsula, the nearest area on Borneo. Permanently above sea level and mostly sand, Ligitan is an island with low-lying vegetation and some trees. It is not permanently inhabited.
Although bigger than Ligitan, Sipadan is also a small island, having an area of approximately 0.13 sq. km. Its co-ordinates are 4° 06' latitude north and 118° 37' longitude east. It is situated some 15 nautical miles from Tanjung Tutop, and 42 nautical miles from the east coast of the island of Sebatik. Sipadan is a densely wooded island of volcanic origin and the top of a submarine mountain some 600 to 700 m in height, around which a coral atoll has formed. It was not inhabited on a permanent basis until the 1980s, when it was developed into a tourist resort for scuba-diving.
In the sixteenth century Spain established itself in the Philippines and sought to extend its influence to the islands lying further to the south. Towards the end of the sixteenth century it began to exercise its influence over the Sultanate of Sulu.
On 23 September 1836 Spain concluded Capitulations of peace, protection and commerce with the Sultan of Sulu. In these Capitulations, Spain guaranteed its protection to the Sultan
"in any of the islands situated within the limits of the Spanish jurisdiction, and which extend from the western point of Mindanao (Magindanao) to Borneo and Paragua (Palawan), with the exception of Sandakan and the other territories tributary to the Sultan on the island of Borneo".
On 19 April 1851, Spain and the Sultan of Sulu concluded an "Act of Re-Submission" whereby the island of Sulu and its dependencies were annexed by the Spanish Crown. That Act was confirmed on 22 July 1878 by a Protocol whereby the Sultan recognized "as beyond discussion the sovereignty of Spain over all the Archipelago of Sulu and the dependencies thereof’.
When the Netherlands East India Company established itself on Borneo in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the influence of the Sultan of Banjermasin extended over large portions of southern and eastern Borneo. On the east coast, the territory under the control of Banjermasin included the "Kingdom of Berou", composed of three "States"; Sambaliung, Gunungtabur and Bulungan. The Sultans of Brunei and Sulu exercised their influence over the northern part of Borneo.
Upon the demise of the Netherlands East India Company at the end of the eighteenth century, all of its territorial possessions were transferred to the Netherlands United Provinces. During the Napoleonic wars, Great Britain took control of the Dutch possessions in Asia. Pursuant to the London Convention of 13 August 1814, the newly formed Kingdom of the Netherlands recovered most of the former Dutch possessions.
On 4 May 1826 a new Contract was concluded. Article 4 thereof reconfirmed the cession to the Netherlands of Berou ("Barou") and of its dependencies.
Over the following years, the three territories that formed the Kingdom of Berou, Sambaliung, Gunungtabur and Bulungan, were separated. By a Declaration of 27 September 1834, the Sultan of Bulungan submitted directly to the authority of the Netherlands East Indies Government. In 1844 the three territories were each recognized by the Government of the Netherlands as separate Kingdoms. Their chiefs were officially accorded the title of Sultan.
A description of the geographical area constituting the Sultanate of Bulungan appeared for the first time in the Contract of 12 November 1850. Article 2 of that Contract described the territory of Bulungan as follows;
"The territory of Boeloengan is located within the following boundaries;
— with Goenoeng-Teboer: from the seashore landwards, the Karangtiegau River from its mouth up to its origin; in addition, the Batoe Beokkier and Mount Palpakh;
— with the Sulu possessions: at sea the cape named Batoe Tinagat, as well as the Tawau River.
The following islands shall belong to Boeloengan; Terakkan, Nenoekkan and Sebittikh, with the small islands belonging thereto. This delimitation is established provisionally, and shall be com
pletely examined and determined again."
A new Contract of Vassalage was concluded on 2 June 1878. It was approved and ratified by the Governor-General of the Netherlands East Indies on 18 October 1878.
Article 2 of the 1878 Contract of Vassalage described the territory of Bulungan as follows; "The territory of the realm of Boeloengan is deemed to be constituted by the lands and islands as described in the statement annexed to this contract." The text of the statement annexed to the contract is virtually identical to that of Article 2 of the 1850 Contract.
This statement was amended in 1893 to bring it into line with the 1891 Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands (see paragraph 23 below). The new statement provided that;
"The Islands of Tarakan and Nanoekan and that portion of the Island of Sebitik, situated to the south of the above boundary-line, described in the ‘Indisch Staatsblad’ of 1892, No. 114, belong to Boeloengan, as well as the small islands belonging to the above islands, so far as they are situated to the south of the boundary-line..."
On 17 March 1824 Great Britain and the Netherlands signed a new
Treaty in an attempt to settle their commercial and territorial disputes in the region.
On 22 January 1878 the Sultan of Sulu agreed to "grant and cede" to Alfred Dent and Baron von Overbeck, as representatives of a British company, all his rights and powers over:
"all the territories and lands being tributary to [him] on the mainland of the Island of Borneo, commencing from the Pandassan River on the west coast to Maludu Bay, and extending along the whole east coast as far as the Sibuco River in the south, comprising all the provinces bordering on Maludu Bay, also the States of Pietan, Sugut, Bangaya, Labuk, Sandakan, K,inabatangan, Mamiang, and all the other territories and states to the southward thereof bordering on Darvel Bay and as far as the Sibuco River, with all the islands belonging thereto within three marine leagues [9 nautical miles] of the coast".
On the same day, the Sultan of Sulu signed a commission whereby he appointed Baron von Overbeck "Dato’ Bendahara and Rajah of Sandakan" with "the fullest power of life and death" over all the inhabitants of the territories which had been granted to him and made him master of "all matters... and [of] the revenues or ‘products’ " belonging to the Sultan in those territories. The Sultan of Sulu asked the "foreign nations" with which he had concluded "friendly treaties and alliances" to accept "the said Dato’ Bendahara as supreme ruler over the said dominions".
Baron von Overbeck subsequently relinquished all his rights and interests in the British company referred to above. Alfred Dent later applied for a Royal Charter from the British Government to administer the territory and exploit its resources. This Charter was granted in November 1881. In May 1882 a chartered company was officially incorporated under the name of the "British North Borneo Company" (hereinafter the "BNBC").
The BNBC began at that time to extend its administration to certain islands situated beyond the 3-marine-league limit referred to in the 1878 grant.
On 7 March 1885 Spain, Germany and Great Britain concluded a new Protocol of which the first three articles read as follows:
The Governments of Germany and Great Britain recognize the sovereignty of Spain over the places effectively occupied, as well as over those places not yet so occupied, of the archipelago of Sulu (Jolo), of which the boundaries are determined in Article 2.
The Archipelago of Sulu (Jolo), conformably to the definition contained in Article 1 of the Treaty signed the 23rd of September 1836, between the Spanish Government and the Sultan of Sulu (Jolo), comprises all the islands which are found between the western extremity of the island of Mindanao, on the one side, and the continent of Borneo and the island of Paragua, on the other side, with the exception of those which are indicated in Article 3.
It is understood that the islands of Balabac and of Cagayan-Jolo form part of the Archipelago.
The Spanish Government relinquishes as far as regards the British Government, all claim of sovereignty over the territories of the continent of Borneo which belong, or which have belonged in the past, to the Sultan of Sulu (Jolo), including therein the neighboring islands of Balambangan, Banguey and Malawali, as well as all those islands lying within a zone of three marine leagues along the coasts and which form part of the territories administered by the Company styled the ‘British North Borneo Company’."
On 26 March 1928 Great Britain and the Netherlands signed another agreement (hereinafter the "1928 Agreement") pursuant to Article V of the 1891 Convention, for the purpose of "further delimiting part of the frontier established in article III of the Convention signed at London on the 20th June, 1891" ("between the summits of the Gunong Api and of the Gunong Raya"); a map was attached to that agreement (see paragraph 73 below).
"All islands to the north and east of the said line and all islands and rocks traversed by the said line, should there be any such, shall belong to the Philippine Archipelago and all islands to the south and west of the said line shall belong to the State of North Borneo."
The present dispute crystallized in 1969 in the context of discussions concerning the delimitation of the respective continental shelves of the two States. Following those negotiations a delimitation agreement was reached on 27 October 1969. It entered into force on 7 November 1969. However, it did not cover the area lying to the east of Borneo.
In October 1991 the two Parties set up a joint working group to study the situation of the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan. They did not however reach any agreement and the issue was entrusted to special emissaries of the two Parties who, in June 1996, recommended by mutual agreement that the dispute should be referred to the International Court of Justice. The Special Agreement was signed on 31 May 1997.
Indonesia contends that the two States parties to the 1891 Convention clearly assumed that they were the only actors in the area. It adds in this regard that Spain had no title to the islands in dispute and had shown no interest in what was going on to the south of the Sulu Archipelago.
In Indonesia’s view, the Convention did not involve territorial cessions; rather, each party’s intention was to recognize the other party’s title to territories on Borneo and islands lying "on that party’s side" of the line, and to relinquish any claim in respect of them. According to Indonesia, "both parties no doubt considered that [the] territories... on their side of the agreed line were already theirs, rather than that they had become theirs by virtue of a treaty cession". It maintains that in any case, whatever may have been the position before 1891, the Convention between the two colonial Powers is an indisputable title which takes precedence over any other pre-existing title.
Malaysia additionally argues that, even if the 1891 Convention were construed so as to allocate possessions to the east of Sebatik, that allocation could not have any consequence in respect of islands which belonged to Spain at the time. In Malaysia’s view, Great Britain could not have envisioned ceding to the Netherlands islands which lay beyond the 3-marine-league line referred to in the 1878 grant, a line said to have been expressly recognized by Great Britain and Spain in the Protocol of 1885.
Indonesia relies essentially on Article IV of the 1891 Convention in support of its claim to the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan. That provision reads as follows:
"From 4° 10' north latitude on the east coast the boundary-line shall be continued eastward along that parallel, across the Island of Sebittik: that portion of the island situated to the north of that parallel shall belong unreservedly to the British North Borneo Company, and the portion south of that parallel to the Netherlands."
The Parties disagree over the interpretation to be given to that provision.
Moreover, Indonesia notes a difference in punctuation between the Dutch and English texts of Article IV of the Convention, both texts being authentic (see paragraph 36 above), and bases itself on the English text, which reads as follows:
"From 4° 10' north latitude on the east coast the boundary-line shall be continued eastward along that parallel, across the Island of Sebittik: that portion of the island situated to the north of that parallel shall belong unreservedly to the British North Borneo Company, and the portion south of that parallel to the Netherlands."
Indonesia emphasizes the colon in the English text, claiming that it is used to separate two provisions of which the second develops or illustrates the first. It thus contends that the second part of the sentence, preceded by the colon, "is essentially a subsidiary part of the sentence, filling out part of its meaning, but not distorting the clear sense of the main clause, which takes the line out to sea along the 4° 10' N parallel".
In regard to the difference in punctuation between the Dutch and English texts of Article IV of the Convention, Malaysia, for its part, relies on the Dutch text, which reads as follows:
"Van 4° 10' noorder breedte ter oostkust zal de grenslijn oostwaarts vervolgd worden langs die parallel over het eiland Sebittik; het gedeelte van dat eiland dat gelegen is ten noorden van die parallel zal onvoorwaardelijk toebehooren aan de Britsche Noord Borneo Maatschappij, en het gedeelte ten zuiden van die parallel aan Nederland."
Malaysia contends that the drafting of this provision as "a single sentence divided into two parts only by a semi-colon indicates the close grammatical and functional connection between the two parts". Thus, in Malaysia’s view, the second clause of the sentence, which relates exclusively to the division of the island of Sebatik, confirms that the words "across the Island of Sebittik" refer solely to that island.
The Parties also disagree on the interpretation of the part of the same sentence which reads "the boundary-line shall be continued eastward along that parallel [4° 10' north]". In the Court’s view, the phrase "shall be continued" is also not devoid of ambiguity. Article I of the Convention defines the starting point of the boundary between the two States, whilst Articles II and III describe how that boundary continues from one part to the next. Therefore, when Article IV provides that "the boundaryline shall be continued" again from the east coast of Borneo along the 4° 10' N parallel and across the island of Sebatik, this does not, contrary to Indonesia’s contention, necessarily mean that the line continues as an allocation line beyond Sebatik.
The Court moreover considers that the difference in punctuation in the two versions of Article IV of the 1891 Convention does not as such help elucidate the meaning of the text with respect to a possible extension of the line out to sea, to the east of Sebatik Island (see also paragraph 56 below).
Malaysia moreover argues that the map in question was never the subject of negotiations between the two Governments and was never officially communicated by the Dutch Government to the British Government. Malaysia adds that, even if the British Government had been made aware of this map through the intermediary of its Minister in The Hague, the circumstances "did not call for any particular reaction, as the map had not been mentioned in the parliamentary debate and no one had noted the extension of the boundary-line out to sea". Malaysia concludes from this that the map in question was not "an Agreement or an Instrument ‘accepted by the other party and related to the treaty’ ".
First, the Memorandum refers to the fact that, in the course of the prior negotiations, the British delegation had proposed that the boundary line should run eastwards from the east coast of North Borneo, passing between the islands of Sebatik and East Nanukan. It further indicates that the Sultan of Bulungan, to whom, according to the Netherlands, the mainland areas of Borneo then in issue between Great Britain and the Netherlands belonged, had been consulted by the latter before the Convention was concluded. Following this consultation, the Sultan had asked for his people to be given the right to gather jungle produce free of tax within the area of the island to be attributed to the State of North Borneo; such right was accorded for a 15-year period by Article VII of the
Convention. As regards Sebatik, the Memorandum explains that the island’s partition had been agreed following a proposal by the Dutch Government and was considered necessary in order to provide access to the coastal regions allocated to each party. The Memorandum contains no reference to the disposition of other islands lying further to the east, and in particular there is no mention of Ligitan or Sipadan.
The Court notes that the map shows only a number of islands situated to the north of parallel 4° 10'; apart from a few reefs, no island is shown to the south of that line. The Court accordingly concludes that the Members of the Dutch Parliament were almost certainly unaware that two tiny islands lay to the south of the parallel and that the red line might be taken for an allocation line. In this regard, the Court notes that there is nothing in the case file to suggest that Ligitan and Sipadan, or other islands such as Mabul, were territories disputed between Great Britain and the Netherlands at the time when the Convention was concluded. The Court cannot therefore accept that the red line was extended in order to settle any dispute in the waters beyond Sebatik, with the consequence that Ligitan and Sipadan were attributed to the Netherlands.
The Court observes that the Explanatory Memorandum and map were never transmitted by the Dutch Government to the British Government, but were simply forwarded to the latter by its diplomatic agent in The Hague, Sir Horace Rumbold. This agent specified that the map had been published in the Official Journal of the Netherlands and formed part of a Report presented to the Second Chamber of the States-General. He added that "the map seems to be the only interesting feature of a document which does not otherwise call for special comment". However, Sir Horace Rumbold did not draw the attention of his authorities to the red line drawn on the map among other lines. The British Government did not react to this internal transmission. In these circumstances, such a lack of reaction to this line on the map appended to the Memorandum cannot be deemed to constitute acquiescence in this line.
It follows from the foregoing that the map cannot be considered either an "agreement relating to [a] treaty which was made between all the parties in connection with the conclusion of the treaty", within the meaning of Article 31, paragraph 2 (a), of the Vienna Convention, or an "instrument which was made by [a] part[y] in connection with the conclusion of the treaty and accepted by the other parties as an instrument related to that treaty", within the meaning of Article 31, paragraph 2 (b), of the Vienna Convention.
It stresses that the main aim of the Convention was "to resolve the uncertainties once and for all so as to avoid future disputes". In this respect, Indonesia invokes the case law of the Court and that of its predecessor, the Permanent Court of International Justice. According to Indonesia, the finality and completeness of boundary settlements were relied on by both Courts, on several occasions, as a criterion for the interpretation of treaty provisions. In particular, Indonesia cites the Advisory Opinion of the Permanent Court on the Interpretation of Article 3, Paragraph 2, of the Treaty of Lausanne (1925), which states;
"It is... natural that any article designed to fix a frontier should, if possible, be so interpreted that the result of the application of its provisions in their entirety should be the establishment of a precise, complete and definitive frontier." (Interpretation of Article 3, Paragraph 2, of the Treaty of Lausanne, Advisory Opinion, 1925, P.C.I.J., Series B, No. 12, p. 20.)
Indonesia puts forward a number of other arguments to justify its interpretation of the Convention’s object and purpose. It points out that "in the preamble to the 1891 Convention the parties stated that they were ‘desirous of defining the boundaries’ (in the plural) between the Dutch and British possessions in Borneo" and argues that this must be taken to mean not only the island of Borneo itself but also other island territories. Indonesia thus contends that the line established by Article IV of the Convention concerned not only the islands which are the subject of the dispute now before the Court but also other islands in the area. Moreover, Indonesia notes that, while Article IV did not establish an endpoint for the line — providing for the line to extend eastward of the island of Sebatik —, that does not mean that the line extends indefinitely eastward. In Indonesia’s opinion, the limit to its eastward extent was determined by the purpose of the Convention, "the settlement, once and for all, of possible Anglo-Dutch territorial differences in the region".
"clear claims... to inland areas north of the Tawau coast and well to the north of 4° 10' N, which were acknowledged by Great Britain in agreeing, in Article VII of the 1891 Convention, to the Sultan having certain continuing transitional rights to jungle produce".
It adds that the Netherlands engaged in "activity in the area evidencing Dutch claims to sovereignty extending to the north of the eventual 4° 10' N line". It further notes "the prevailing uncertainty at the time as to the precise extent of the territories belonging to the two parties" and mentions "the occurrence of occasional Anglo-Dutch confrontations as a result of these uncertainties".
Indonesia moreover maintains that the travaux préparatoires of the 1891 Convention, though containing no express indication as to whether Ligitan and Sipadan were British or Dutch, confirm its interpretation of Article IV.
In Indonesia’s view, there can be no doubt that during the negotiations leading up to the signature of the Convention the two parties, and in particular Great Britain, envisaged a line continuing out to sea to the east of the island of Borneo. In support of this argument, Indonesia submits several maps used by the parties’ delegations during the negotiations. It considers that these maps "show a consistent pattern of the line of proposed settlement, wherever it might finally run, being extended out to sea along a relevant parallel of latitude".
The Joint Commission met three times and devoted itself almost exclusively to questions relating to the disputed area of the north-east coast. It was only at the last meeting, held on 27 July 1889, that the British delegation proposed that the boundary should pass between the islands of Sebatik and East Nanukan. This was the first proposal of any prolongation of the inland boundary out to sea. The Court however notes from the diplomatic correspondence exchanged after the Commission was dissolved that it follows that the Netherlands had rejected the British proposal. The specific idea of Sebatik Island being divided along the 4° 10' N parallel was only introduced later. In a letter of 2 February 1891 to the British Secretary for Foreign Affairs from the Dutch Minister in London, the latter stated that the Netherlands agreed with this partition. The Secretary for Foreign Affairs, in his reply dated 11 February 1891, acknowledged this understanding and enclosed a draft agreement. Article 4 of the draft is practically identical in its wording to Article IV of the 1891 Convention. In the draft agreement (proposed by Great Britain) the two sentences of Article 4 are separated by a semicolon. In the final English text, the semicolon was replaced by a colon without the travaux préparatoires shedding any light on the reasons for this change. Consequently, no firm inference can be drawn from the change. There were no further difficulties and the Convention was signed on 20 June 1891.
There is however one exception. In an internal Foreign Office memorandum, drafted in preparation for the meeting of the Joint Commission, the following suggestion was made:
"Starting eastward from a point A on the coast near Broers Hoek on parallel 4° 10' of North Latitude, the line should follow that parallel until it is intersected by... the Meridian 117° 50' East Longitude, opposite the Southernmost point of the Island of Sebattik at the point marked C. The line would continue thence in an Easterly direction along the 4th parallel, until it should meet the point of intersection of the Meridian of 118° 44'30" marked D."
This suggestion was illustrated on a map that is reproduced as map No. 4 of Indonesia’s map atlas. Sipadan is to the west of point D and Ligitan to the east of this point. Neither of the two islands appears on the map. The Court observes that there is nothing in the case file to prove that the suggestion was ever brought to the attention of the Dutch Government or that the line between points C and D had ever been the subject of discussion between the parties. Although put forward in one of the many British internal documents drawn up during the negotiations, the suggestion was never actually adopted. Once the parties arrived at an agreement on the partition of Sebatik, they were only interested in the boundary on the island of Borneo itself and exchanged no views on an allocation of the islands in the open seas to the east of Sebatik.
Finally, Indonesia asserts that the fact that the Commissioners’ work started at the east coast of Sebatik does not mean that the 1891 Convention line began there, any more than the fact that their work ended after covering some 20 per cent of the boundary can be interpreted to mean that the boundary did not continue any further. It states that, contrary to what Malaysia suggests, the Commissioners’ report did not say that the boundary started on the east coast of Sebatik but indicated only that "[t]raversing the island of Sibetik, the frontier line follows the parallel of 4° 10' north latitude...".
With respect to the 1915 Agreement, Malaysia points out that the Agreement "starts by stating that the frontier line traverses the island of Sebatik following the parallel of 4° 10' N latitude marked on the east and west coasts by boundary pillars, then follows the parallel westward". In Malaysia’s view, this wording "is exclusive of any prolongation of the line eastward". Further, Malaysia maintains that the map referred to in the preamble to the Agreement and annexed to it confirms that the boundary line started on the east coast of Sebatik Island and did not concern Ligitan or Sipadan. In this respect, it observes that on this map the eastern extremity of the boundary line is situated on the east coast of Sebatik and that the map shows no sign of the line being extended out to sea. Malaysia points out, however, that from the western endpoint of the boundary the map shows the beginning of a continuation due south. Malaysia concludes from this that "[i]f the Commissioners had thought the [1891 Convention] provided for an extension of the boundary line eastwards by an allocation line, they would have likewise indicated the beginning of such a line" as they had done at the other end of the boundary. Malaysia stresses that the Commissioners not only chose not to extend the line on the map but they even indicated the end of the boundary line on the map by a red cross. Malaysia adds that the evidentiary value of the map annexed to the 1915 Agreement is all the greater because it is "the only official map agreed by the Parties".
At the hearings, Malaysia further contended that the 1915 Agreement could not be considered exclusively as a demarcation agreement. It explained that the Commissioners did not perform an exercise of demarcation stricto sensu, as they took liberties with the text of the 1891 Convention at a number of points on the land boundary, and these liberties were subsequently endorsed by the signatories of the 1915 Agreement. As an example, Malaysia referred to the change made by the Commissioners to the boundary line in the channel between the west coast of Sebatik and mainland Borneo, for the purpose of reaching the middle of the mouth of the River Troesan Tamboe.
The first such agreement was the one signed at London by Great Britain and the Netherlands on 28 September 1915 relating to "the boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Netherland possessions in Borneo". As explained in an exchange of letters of 16 March and 3 October 1905 between Baron Gericke, Netherlands Minister in London, and the Marquess of Lansdowne, British Foreign Secretary, and in a communication dated 19 November 1910 from the Netherlands Charge d’affaires, the origin of that agreement was a difference of opinion between the Netherlands and Great Britain in respect of the course of the boundary line. The difference concerned the manner in which Article II of the 1891 Convention should be interpreted. That provision was, by way of the 1905 exchange of letters, given an interpretation agreed by the two Governments. In 1910, the Netherlands Minister for the Colonies made known to the Foreign Office, by way of the above-mentioned communication from the Netherlands Charge d’affaires, his view that "the time [had] come to open the negotiations with the British Government mentioned in the [Convention] of June 20, 1891, concerning the indication of the frontier between British North Borneo and the Netherland Territory". He stated in particular that the uncertainty as to the actual course of the boundary made itself felt "along the whole" boundary. For that purpose, he proposed that "a mixed Commission... be appointed to indicate the frontier on the ground, to describe it and to prepare a map of same". As the proposal was accepted, a mixed Commission carried out the prescribed task between 8 June 1912 and 30 January 1913.
Moreover, the Court observes that the course of the boundary line finally adopted in the 1915 Agreement does not totally correspond to that of the 1891 Convention. Thus, as Malaysia points out, whereas the sector of the boundary between Sebatik Island and Borneo under Article IV of the 1891 Convention was to follow a straight line along the parallel of 4° 10' latitude north (see paragraph 36 above), the 1915 Agreement stipulates that:
"(2) Starting from the boundary pillar on the west coast of the island of Sibetik, the boundary follows the parallel of 4° 10' north latitude westward until it reaches the middle of the channel, thence keeping a mid-channel course until it reaches the middle of the mouth of Troesan Tamboe.
(3) From the mouth of Troesan Tamboe the boundary line is continued up the middle of this Troesan until it is intersected by a similar line running through the middle of Troesan Sikapal; it then follows this line through Troesan Sikapal as far as the point where the latter meets the watershed between the Simengaris and Seroedong Rivers (Sikapal hill), and is connected finally with this watershed by a line taken perpendicular to the centre line of Troesan Sikapal."
In view of the foregoing, the Court cannot accept Indonesia’s argument that the 1915 Agreement was purely a demarcation agreement; nor can it accept the conclusion drawn therefrom by Indonesia that the very nature of this Agreement shows that the parties were not required to concern themselves therein with the course of the line out to sea to the east of Sebatik Island.
It first observes that the title of the 1915 Agreement is very general in nature ("Agreement between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands relating to the Boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Netherland Possessions in Borneo"), as is its wording. Thus, the preamble to the Agreement refers to the joint report incorporated into the Agreement and to the map accompanying it as "relating to the boundary between the State of North Borneo and the Netherland possessions in the island", without any further indication. Similarly, paragraphs 1 and 3 of the joint report state that the Commissioners had "travelled in the neighbourhood of the frontier from the 8th June, 1912, to the 30th January, 1913" and had
"determined the boundary between the Netherland territory and the State of British North Borneo, as described in the Boundary Treaty supplemented by the interpretation of Article 2 of the Treaty mutually accepted by the Netherland and British Governments in 1905" (emphasis added by the Court).
For their part, the Commissioners, far from confining their examination to the specific problem which had arisen in connection with the interpretation of Article II of the 1891 Convention (see paragraph 70 above), also considered the situation in respect of the boundary from Sebatik westward. Thus, they began their task at the point where the 4° 10' latitude north parallel crosses the east coast of Sebatik; they then simply proceeded from east to west.
Moreover, subparagraph (1) of paragraph 3 of the joint report describes the boundary line fixed by Article IV of the 1891 Convention as follows:
"Traversing the island of Sibetik, the frontier line follows the parallel of 4° 10' north latitude, as already fixed by Article 4 of the Boundary Treaty and marked on the east and west coasts by boundary pillars" (emphasis added by the Court).
In sum, the 1915 Agreement covered a priori the entire boundary "between the Netherland territory and the State of British North Borneo" and the Commissioners performed their task beginning at the eastern end of Sebatik. In the opinion of the Court, if the boundary had continued in any way to the east of Sebatik, at the very least some mention of that could have been expected in the Agreement.
The Court considers that an examination of the map annexed to the 1915 Agreement reinforces the Court’s interpretation of that Agreement. The Court observes that the map, together with the map annexed to the 1928 Agreement, is the only one which was agreed between the parties to the 1891 Convention. The Court notes on this map that an initial southward extension of the line indicating the boundary between the Netherlands possessions and the other States under British protection is shown beyond the western endpoint of the boundary defined in 1915, while a similar extension does not appear beyond the point situated on the east coast of Sebatik; that latter point was, in all probability, meant to indicate the spot where the boundary ended.
"The boundary as defined in article III of the Convention signed at London on the 20th June, 1891, is further delimited between the summits of the Gunong Api and of the Gunong Raya as described in the following article and as shown on the map attached to this Convention."
The Court considers this too to be an agreement providing for both a more exact delimitation of the boundary in the sector in question and its demarcation, not solely a demarcation treaty. However, the Court finds that in 1928 it was a matter of carrying out the detailed delimitation and demarcation of only a limited inland boundary sector. Accordingly, the Court cannot draw any conclusions, for the purpose of interpreting Article IV of the 1891 Convention, from the fact that the 1928 Agreement fails to make any reference to the question of the boundary line being extended, as an allocation line, out to sea east of Sebatik.
In a letter of 10 December 1922 to the Minister for the Colonies, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies proposed certain solutions for the delimitation of the territorial waters off the coast of Sebatik. One of these solutions was to draw "a line which is an extension of the land border". The Ministry of Foreign Affairs was also consulted. In a Memorandum of 8 August 1923, it also mentioned the "extension of the land boundary" dividing Sebatik Island as the possible boundary between Dutch territorial waters and the territorial waters of the State of North Borneo. In support of this solution, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs invoked the map annexed to the Explanatory Memorandum, "on which the border between the areas under Dutch and British jurisdiction on land and sea is extended along the parallel 4° 10' N". The Ministry however added that "this map [did] not result from actual consultation" between the parties, although it was probably known to the British Government. Nevertheless, in his letter of 27 September 1926 to the Minister for the Colonies, the Minister for Foreign Affairs, whilst not considering it desirable to raise the question with the British Government, put forward the perpendicular line as being the best solution. In the end this issue was not pursued and the Dutch Government never drew it to the attention of the British Government.
In the Court’s view, the above-mentioned correspondence suggests that, in the 1920s, the best informed Dutch authorities did not consider that there had been agreement in 1891 on the extension out to sea of the line drawn on land along the 4° 10' north parallel.
For its part, Malaysia notes that the oil concessions in the 1960s did not concern territorial delimitation and that the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan were never included in the concession perimeters. It adds that "[n]o activity pursuant to the Indonesian concessions had any relation to the islands".
As regards the legal value of the maps it has produced, Indonesia considers that a number of these maps fall into the category of the "physical expressions of the will of the State or the States concerned" and that, while "these maps do not constitute a territorial title by themselves, they command significant weight in the light of their consistent depiction of the 1891 Treaty line as separating the territorial possessions, including the islands, of the Parties".
It does, however, recognize that some modern maps might be interpreted in a contrary sense, but it contends that these are relatively few in number and that their legal force is reduced by the fact that each of them contains a disclaimer in regard to the accuracy of the boundaries. Malaysia moreover argues that on the majority of these latter maps the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan are not shown at all, are in the wrong place, or are not shown as belonging to Malaysia or to Indonesia.
"maps merely constitute information which varies in accuracy from case to case; of themselves, and by virtue solely of their existence, they cannot constitute a territorial title, that is, a document endowed by international law with intrinsic legal force for the purpose of establishing territorial rights. Of course, in some cases maps may acquire such legal force, but where this is so the legal force does not arise solely from their intrinsic merits: it is because such maps fall into the category of physical expressions of the will of the State or States concerned. This is the case, for example, when maps are annexed to an official text of which they form an integral part. Except in this clearly defined case, maps are only extrinsic evidence of varying reliability or unreliability which may be used, along with other evidence of a circumstantial kind, to establish or reconstitute the real facts." (Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Republic of Mali), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1986, p. 582, para. 54; Kasiki/HSedudu Island (Botswana/Namibia), Judgment, I.C.J. Reports 1999 (II), p. 1098, para. 84.)
In the present case, the Court observes that no map reflecting the agreed views of the parties was appended to the 1891 Convention, which would have officially expressed the will of Great Britain and the Netherlands as to the prolongation of the boundary line, as an allocation line, out to sea to the east of Sebatik Island.
The Court notes that the manner in which these maps represent the continuation out to sea of the line forming the land boundary varies from one map to another. Moreover, the length of the line extending out to sea varies considerably: on some maps it continues for several miles before stopping approximately halfway to the meridians of Ligitan and Sipadan, whilst on others it extends almost to the boundary between the Philippines and Malaysia.
For its part, Malaysia has produced various maps on which the boundary line between the British and Dutch possessions in the region stops on the eastern coast of Sebatik Island. These maps include the map of British North Borneo annexed to the 1907 Exchange of Notes between Great Britain and the United States, the Dutch map of 1913 representing the Administrative Structure of the Southern and Eastern Borneo Residence, and the map showing the 1915 boundary line published in the Official Gazette of the Dutch Colonies in 1916.
The Court however considers that each of these maps was produced for specific purposes and it is therefore unable to draw from those maps any clear and final conclusion as to whether or not the line defined in Article IV of the 1891 Convention extended to the east of Sebatik Island. Moreover, Malaysia was not always able to justify its criticism of the maps submitted by Indonesia. Malaysia thus contended that the line shown on the Stanford maps of 1894, 1903 and 1904, extending out to sea along the parallel of 4° 10' latitude north, corresponded to an administrative boundary of North Borneo, but could not cite any basis other than the 1891 Convention as support for the continuation of that State’s administrative boundary along the parallel in question.
It is this "chain of title" which, according to Malaysia, provides it with a treaty-based title to Ligitan and Sipadan.
It states that "[t]his control resulted from the allegiance of the local people and the appointment of their local chiefs by the Sultan", but that his authority over the area in question was also recognized by other States, notably Spain and the Netherlands.
Malaysia further states that during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the islands and reefs along the north-east coast of Borneo were inhabited and used by the Bajau Laut, or Sea Gypsies, people who live mostly on boats or in settlements of stilt houses above water and devote themselves in particular to fishing, collecting forest products and trade. In respect specifically of Ligitan and Sipadan, Malaysia notes that, even though these islands were not permanently inhabited at the time of the main decisive events in respect of sovereignty over them, that is, the latter part of the nineteenth century and the twentieth century, they were nevertheless frequently visited and were an integral part of the marine economy of the Bajau Laut.
In this respect, Indonesia states that the disputed islands cannot be regarded as falling at the time in question within the area controlled by the Sultan of Sulu, as he was never present south of Darvel Bay except through some commercial influence which in any event was receding when the 1891 Convention between Great Britain and the Netherlands was concluded. Indonesia admits that there may have been alliances between the Sultan of Sulu and some Bajau Laut groups, but argues that those ties were personal in nature and are not sufficient in any event to establish territorial sovereignty over the disputed islands.
In support of its interpretation of the 1900 Treaty, Malaysia notes that in 1903, after a visit of the USS Quiros to the region, the United States Hydrographic Office published a chart of the "Northern Shore of Sibuko Bay", showing the disputed islands on the American side of a line separating British territory from United States territory. Malaysia concludes from this that the 1903 chart represented a public assertion by the United States of its sovereignty over the additional islands ceded to it under the 1900 Treaty, adding that this assertion of sovereignty occasioned no reaction from the Netherlands.
Malaysia considers that the United States and Great Britain attempted to settle the questions concerning sovereignty over the islands and their administration by an Exchange of Notes of 3 and 10 July 1907. Great Britain is said to have recognized the continuing sovereignty of the United States, as successor to Spain, over the islands beyond the 3-marine-league limit; for its part, the United States is said to have accepted that these islands had in fact been administered by the BNBC and to have agreed to allow that situation to continue, subject to a right on both parts to terminate the agreement on 12 months’ notice. Malaysia asserts that all relevant documents clearly show that the islands covered by the 1907 Exchange of Notes included all those adjacent to the North Borneo coast beyond the 3-marine-league line and that Ligitan and Sipadan were among those islands. Malaysia relies in particular on the 1907 Exchange of Notes and the map to which it referred and which depicts Ligitan and Sipadan as lying on the British side of the line which separates the islands under British and American administration. It further points out that the 1907 Exchange of Notes was published at the time by the United States and by Great Britain and that it attracted no protest on the part of the Netherlands Government.
Indonesia adds that its position is supported by subsequent events. According to it, the United States was uncertain as to the precise extent of the possessions it had obtained from Spain.
To illustrate the uncertainties felt by the United States, Indonesia observes that in October 1903 the United States Navy Department had recommended, after consultation with the State Department, that the boundary line shown on certain United States charts be omitted. According to Indonesia, it is significant that this recommendation concerned in particular the chart of the "Northern Shore of Sibuko Bay" issued by the United States Hydrographic Office in June 1903, after the voyage of the Quiros. In Indonesia’s view it is thus "clear that the 1903 Hydrographic Office Chart, far from being a ‘public assertion’ of US sovereignty, as suggested by Malaysia, was a tentative internal position which was subsequently withdrawn after more careful consideration"; the 1903 chart can therefore not be seen as an official document, and nothing can be made of the fact that it provoked no reaction from the Netherlands.
As regards the United States-British Exchange of Notes of 1907, Indonesia considers that this consisted only of a temporary arrangement whereby the United States waived in favour of the BNBC the administration of certain islands located "to the westward and southwestward of the line traced on the [accompanying] map... [This], however, was without prejudice to the issue of sovereignty" over the islands in question.
Malaysia makes the further point that the 1930 Convention was published both by the United States and by Great Britain and also in the League of Nations Treaty Series, and that it evoked "no reaction from the Netherlands, though one might have been expected if the islands disposed of by it were claimed by the Netherlands".
Finally, Malaysia observes that, by an agreement concluded on 26 June 1946 between the British Government and the BNBC, "the latter ceded to the Crown all its sovereign rights and its assets in North Borneo". According to Malaysia, the disappearance of the State of North Borneo and its replacement by the British Colony of North Borneo had no effect on the extent of the territory belonging to North Borneo.
The Court further notes that the two islands were not included in the grant by which the Sultan of Sulu ceded all his rights and powers over his possessions in Borneo, including the islands within a limit of 3 marine leagues, to Alfred Dent and Baron von Overbeck on 22 January 1878, a fact not contested by the Parties.
Finally, the Court observes that, while the Parties both maintain that the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan were not terrae nullius during the period in question in the present case, they do so on the basis of diametrically opposed reasoning, each of them claiming to hold title to those islands.
It cannot be disputed, however, that the Sultan of Sulu relinquished the sovereign rights over all his possessions in favour of Spain, thus losing any title he may have had over islands located beyond the 3-marine-league limit from the coast of North Borneo. He was therefore not in a position to declare in 1903 that such islands had been included in the 1878 grant to Alfred Dent and Baron von Overbeck.
The Court, having found that neither of the Parties has a treaty-based title to Ligitan and Sipadan (see paragraphs 92 and 124 above), will consider these effectivités as an independent and separate issue.
Indonesia adds that Malaysia, from 1979 onwards, nevertheless took a series of unilateral measures that were fundamentally incompatible with the undertaking thus given to respect the situation as it existed in 1969. By way of example Indonesia mentions the publication of maps by Malaysia showing, unlike earlier maps, the disputed islands as Malaysian and the establishment of a number of tourist facilities on Sipadan. Indonesia adds that it always protested whenever Malaysia took such unilateral steps.
As regards its own activities, Indonesia notes that "[p]rior to the emergence of the dispute in 1969, the Indonesian Navy was also active in the area, visiting Sipadan on several occasions".
As regards fishing activities, Indonesia states that Indonesian fishermen have traditionally plied their trade around the islands of Ligitan and Sipadan. It has submitted a series of affidavits which provide a record of occasional visits to the islands dating back to the 1950s and early 1960s, and even to the early 1970s, after the dispute between the Parties had emerged.
Finally, in regard to its Act No. 4 concerning Indonesian Waters, promulgated on 18 February 1960, in which its archipelagic baselines are defined, Indonesia recognizes that it did not at that time include Ligitan or Sipadan as base points for the purpose of drawing baselines and defining its archipelagic waters and territorial sea. But it argues that this cannot be interpreted as demonstrating that Indonesia regarded the islands as not belonging to its territory. It points out in this connection that the Act of 1960 was prepared in some haste, which can be explained by the need to create a precedent for the recognition of the concept of archipelagic waters just before the Second United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which was due to be held from 17 March to 26 April 1960. Indonesia adds that it moreover sought to diverge as little as possible from the existing law of the sea, one of the principles of which was that the drawing of baselines could not depart to any appreciable extent from the general direction of the coast.
As regards post-colonial practice, Malaysia observes that, for the first 25 years of its independence, Indonesia showed no interest in Ligitan and Sipadan. Malaysia claims that Indonesia "did not manifest any presence in the area, did not try to administer the islands, enacted no legislation and made no ordinances or regulations concerning the two islands or their surrounding waters".
Malaysia further observes that Indonesian Act No. 4 of 18 February 1960, to which a map was attached, defined the outer limits of the Indonesian national waters by a list of baseline co-ordinates. However, Indonesia did not use the disputed islands as reference points for the baselines. Malaysia argues that, in light of the said Act and of the map attached thereto, Ligitan and Sipadan Islands cannot be regarded as belonging to Indonesia. Malaysia admits that it has still not published a detailed map of its own baselines. It points out that it did, however, publish its continental shelf boundaries in 1979, in a way which takes full account of the two islands in question.
As regards the collection of turtle eggs, Indonesia does not contest the facts as stated by Malaysia but argues that the regulations issued by the British and the rules established for the resolution of disputes between the inhabitants of the area were evidence of the exercise of personal rather than territorial jurisdiction. Indonesia also contests the evidentiary value of the establishment of a bird sanctuary by the British authorities as an act a titre de souverain in relation to Sipadan. Similarly, in Indonesia’s view, Malaysia’s construction and maintenance of lighthouses do not constitute proof of acts a titre de souverain. It observes in any event that it did not object to these activities by Malaysia because they were of general interest for navigation.
Malaysia adduces several documents showing that the 1917 Turtle Preservation Ordinance was applied until the 1950s at least. In this regard, it cites, for example, the licence issued on 28 April 1954 by the District Officer of Tawau permitting the capture of turtles pursuant to Section 2 of the Ordinance. The Court observes that this licence covered an area including "the islands of Sipadan, Ligitan, Kapalat, Mabul, Dinawan and Si-Amil".
Further, Malaysia mentions certain cases both before and after 1930 in which it has been shown that administrative authorities settled disputes about the collection of turtle eggs on Sipadan.
"Certain types of activities invoked by Bahrain such as the drilling of artesian wells would, taken by themselves, be considered controversial as acts performed a titre de souverain. The construction of navigational aids, on the other hand, can be legally relevant in the case of very small islands. In the present case, taking into account the size of Qit’at Jaradah, the activities carried out by Bahrain on that island must be considered sufficient to support Bahrain’s claim that it has sovereignty over it." (Judgment, Merits, I.C.J. Reports 2001, pp. 99-100, para. 197.)
The Court is of the view that the same considerations apply in the present case.
The Court moreover cannot disregard the fact that at the time when these activities were carried out, neither Indonesia nor its predecessor, the Netherlands, ever expressed its disagreement or protest. In this regard, the Court notes that in 1962 and 1963 the Indonesian authorities did not even remind the authorities of the colony of North Borneo, or Malaysia after its independence, that the construction of the lighthouses at those times had taken place on territory which they considered Indonesian; even if they regarded these lighthouses as merely destined for safe navigation in an area which was of particular importance for navigation in the waters off North Borneo, such behaviour is unusual.
By sixteen votes to one,
Finds that sovereignty over Pulau Ligitan and Pulau Sipadan belongs to Malaysia.
in favour: President Guillaume; Vice-President Shi; Judges Oda, Ranjeva, Herczegh, Fleischhauer, Koroma, Vereshchetin, Higgins, Parra-Aranguren, Kooijmans, Rezek, Al-Khasawneh, Buergenthal, Elaraby; Judge ad hoc Weeramantry;
against: Judge ad hoc Franck.
Done in English and in French, the English text being authoritative, at the Peace Palace, The Hague, this seventeenth day of December, two thousand and two, in three copies, one of which will be placed in the archives of the Court and the others transmitted to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and the Government of Malaysia, respectively.