The investor’s nationality is relevant for jurisdictional purposes. Most investment treaties require investors to be a national of a Contracting State in order to establish the jurisdiction of an arbitral tribunal, and forbid the investors to have the nationality of the host State.1
Regardless of the applicable criteria to ascertain the nationality of the investor, the relevant date to determine the investor’s nationality is an important issue, since it could change over time and have an impact on the jurisdiction of the arbitral tribunal.
II. Relevant date under the ICSID convention
The ICSID Convention expressly specifies the relevant date at which the nationality of the investor needs to be determined. The ICSID Convention states that nationality needs to be analysed at the date on which the parties consented to submit the dispute to the Centre’s jurisdiction and, also, on the date the Centre registered the request for arbitration.2
III. Different approaches to the date on which the tribunal's jurisdiction needs to be established
In investments disputes, the consent to arbitrate the dispute is typically perfected when the investor submits the request for arbitration, accepting the unilateral offer made by the host State, commonly in a BIT. Accordingly, most arbitral tribunals have recognised that the critical dates for determination of the nationality of the investor are both: (i) the date at which the alleged violation of the treaty occurred; and (ii) the date at which the parties consented to arbitrate the dispute.3
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